Collecting terms about letter, typeface, type, typography, printing and linguistics; three languages (English, German and Japanese)辞時源諸説―説文解字・用語(文字/印刷/書体)・ドイツ歴史年表

GLOSSARY||TYPE ANATOMY||ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

発音/st'em/
範疇《言語》《活版》《筆画》

語義 definitions

  1. 《言語》語幹、基語【同】root?, root word, base, theme
  2. 《活版》(活字の)ボディ、体、軸。活字の肩(shoulder)と足(foot)の間の角柱部分。【同】body, shank?, 体, 軸
  3. 《筆画》欧文書体において、(ほぼ)直線で主要な画、または(相対的に)太い画。【同】main stroke, stroke 3, body stroke, main stem
    1. (特にアセンダーラインからベースラインまでの、またはミーンラインからディセンダーラインまでの、セリフなどを除いた、時に太い)垂直画。また文字が斜体の場合は主要となる斜画。【同】vertical stroke 2
      【参】i, m, nなどのエックスハイト分の垂直画は特にminimと呼ぶこともある。
    2. (時に太い)垂直画、ないしは垂直画のない文字(例えばVやAなど)では主要となる斜画、または垂直画のあるNやZでも斜画の方。
  1. the main part of a word to which affixes are added.
  2. =body, shank?
  3. the main straight or relatively thick stroke of a letter.
    1. the primary, straight (usually full-length) vertical stroke of a letter, or the primary diagonal stroke in an oblique character.
    2. the primary, straight (usually full-length) vertical stroke of a letter, or the primary straight (usually full-length) diagonal stroke in a letter which has no verticals). Occasionally the stem is diagonal, as in the capital “N” or “Z”.

図解 illustrations

語義2 definition 2
body
語義3 definition 3
  • 3-a 主要な垂直画 primary, straight vertical stroke

 
Typeface: Adobe Garamond Pro Regular

  • 3-b 主要な垂直画、または斜画 primary vertical stroke or main straight diagonal stroke

 
Typeface: Adobe Garamond Pro Regular

各種定義 definitions from a variety of websites, books and dictionaries

a central part of something from which other parts can develop or grow, or which forms a support
 
Procter, Paul. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Cambridge University Press, 1995, 1792p. (p.1419)

語義1 definition 1
root or main part of a noun or verb from which other parts or words are made, eg by altering the endings.(引用者註:文中の『eg』はfor exampleを意味する)
 
『Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary Fourth Edition オックスフォード 現代英英辞典 第4版 縮刷版/ビニール装』 開拓社 1990.2.10 第4版 第1刷 発行
The main part of a word to which affixes are added.
 
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
the part of a word that does not change when an ending is added, for example “work” in the word “working”
 
Macmillan Dictionary
the part of an inflected word that remains after the inflected part is removed
 
Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 11th Edition

語義2 definition 2
【同】ボディ1
 
(「ボディ1」より)活字字づらの突起部を除く角柱の部分。背・腹・両わき・肩・足の各面で囲まれた立方体。
 
日本印刷学会編. 印刷事典 第五版. 印刷朝陽会, 2002, 672p. (p.278) (p.491)

語義3 definition 3
The principal or thick stroke of a letter. Also called main stroke.
 
Eckersley, Richard. Ellerston, Charles M. Hendel, Richard. Pascal, Naomi B. Scott, Anita Walker. Glossary of Typesetting Terms. The University of Chicago Press, 1995, 184p.
『Glossary of Typesetting Terms』のp.119「The Parts of a Letter」の図解の書影【Google Books】(図解あり)
A main stroke that is more or less straight, not part of a bowl. The letter o has no stem; the letter l consists of stem and serifs alone.
 
Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements Of Typographic Style: Version 3.0. Hartley & Marks, 2004, 384p.
a main or heavy stroke of a letter
 
Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 11th Edition
the main or relatively thick stroke of a letter in printing.
 
Dictionary.com
書籍『Designing Type』p.13の「I」
 
Cheng, Karen. Designing Type. Laurence King Publishing, 2006, 232p. (p.13)
『Designing Type』p.13 の書影【Google Books】(図解あり)

  • 3-a 主要な垂直画 primary, straight vertical stroke
欧文書体の縦の太い線。
 
日本印刷学会編. 印刷事典 第五版. 印刷朝陽会, 2002, 672p. (p.278)
字づらを構成する縦の線。明朝体では横線よりも肉太である。欧文活字ではステムまたはボディストロークという。文字の解読には縦線が第一に視覚に印象づけられる。可読性に対する影響が大きい。
 
日本印刷学会編. 印刷事典 第五版. 印刷朝陽会, 2002, 672p. (p.318) ※「縦線」の項目。
some writers use ‘stem’ for any vertical stroke in a letter. In this work the term is used of one stroke only – usually, but not always, the one that a scribe would write first: thus, the upright in E and p, but not the vertical strokes in N, which are secondary to the diagonal stroke.
 
Tracy, Walter. Letters of Credit: A View of Type Design. David R Godine Pub, 2003, 224p.
In typography, the primary, straight vertical stroke of a letter or other character, or the primary diagonal stroke in an oblique character.
 
PrintWiki - the Free Encyclopedia of Print
A major stroke of a letter, usually vertical. Diagonal stems are found in A and W, but they are often not considered to be stems because of their slant.
 
Type Directors Club : Views : Type Dictionary
Definition: The stem is the main, usually vertical stroke of a letterform.
Examples: Not all letters have a stem, such as C or S. The vertical, non-curved portions of L, l, d, B, and p are examples of stems. H, N, and M have two stems each. Some letterforms such as y and A may have a sloped or diagonal stem.
 
Typeface Anatomy Basics - Explore Parts of Letters
Primary vertical stroke.
 
Typedia: Learn: Anatomy of a Typeface(図解あり)
vertical, full-length stroke in upright characters like T or L; also called Main stroke
 
Type Terminology(図解あり)
The Stem is the straight, vertical or almost vertical, full length stroke within a character.
 
Font Factory(図解あり)
The main vertical strokes of letters such as H, L, T, P, etc. The stem is generally more or less straight and is not part of a bowl. Some letters contain more than one stem, such as H, others contain no stem at all, such as O.
 
Linotype Support - Font Glossary(図解あり)
vertical stroke of a character like b d h k l p q B D E F H I K L M N P R T.
 
Melbourne Museum of Printing - Glossary of Printing and Typography
The upright element of a letter or character.
 
Proxima Software - Typography Terms
The upright stroke of a typeface or letter.
 
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
A major vertical stroke within a letter, such as in the uppercase L, E, B, K and the lowercase l, d, and b. The stem does not include any serifs or other stroke endings.
 
Take Flight Graphics. Line & Curve. Issue No.1, Volume 1, March 17, 1999【PDF】
The vertical stokes that make up the main part of most characters containing straight lines - the letter 'O' does not contain a stem.
 
Glossary of fonts terminology, typographic terms, typefaces | design : talkboard
The (almost) vertical full stroke of a character. For instance in I, H, E, etc.
 
Stuart, Henrik. Compositional Typeface Specification. 2006【PDF】
書籍『Lettering & Type: Creating Letters and Designing Typefaces』のp.30「LETTER STRUCTURE」の「d」の図解。
 
Willen, Bruce. Strals, Nolen. Lettering & Type: Creating Letters and Designing Typefaces. Princeton Architectural Press, 2009, 144p. (p.30)
Lettering & Type: Creating Letters and Designing Typefacesp.30の書影【Google Books】(図解あり)
vertical, full-length stroke in upright characters like T or L; also called Main stroke
 
Type Terminology | DynamicGraphics.com(図解あり)
『Reed, Pen and Brush Alphabets for Writing and Lettering』の図解
Catich, Edward M.. Reed, Pen and Brush Alphabets for Writing and Lettering. Hastings House Publishers, 1980, 64p. (p.57)(図解あり)
『Origin of the Serif』の図解
 
Catich, Edward M.. Origin of the Serif. St Ambrose University, 1991, 310p. (p.20)(図解あり)
The Stem is the straight, vertical or almost vertical, full length stroke within a character.
 
Glossary of Terms | Font Factory(図解あり)

  • 3-b 主要な垂直画、または斜画 primary vertical stroke or main straight diagonal stroke
文字を構成する主要な画線のことで、通常は直線部分の画線を指します。
 
小林章. 欧文書体―その背景と使い方(新デザインガイド). 美術出版社, 2005, 160p.(図解あり)
A straight vertical stroke or main straight diagonal stroke in a letter that has no verticals.
 
Strizver, Ilene. Type Rules!: The Designer's Guide to Professional Typography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,, 2010, 272p.(図解あり)
The principal vertical or oblique stroke in a letter, as in L, B, V or A.
 
Blackwell, Lewis. 20th Century Type Remix. Gingko Press Inc., 1998, 192p.(図解あり)
The main vertical stroke of a letter. It can be drawn at an angle for a slanted script, and can be the main diagonal stroke of the letter, as in N and Z.
 
Harris, David. The Art Of Calligraphy. Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2005, 128p.
Main “weight bearing” stroke of a letter; usually vertical, or at an angle if the script is at a slant. Occasionally the stem is diagonal, as in the capital “N” or “Z”.
 
Folsom, Rose. The Calligraphers' Dictionary. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1990, 144p.
A straight vertical stroke (or the main straight diagonal stroke in a letter which has no verticals).
 
Anatomy of a Character - Fonts.com(図解あり)
A primary vertical or near-vertical full-length stroke of a character (as in I, E, b, p, or 1 and 4). For some authors, includes full-length diagonal strokes (diagonals or diagonal stems, as in A, V, W, v, w, and y).
 
Font Glossary - Fonts.com
this is a vertical stroke, though may also apply to the diagonal strokes of letters such as 'A' and 'y'.
 
Discover the Anatomy of a Font: How to Distinguish the Different Parts of a Typeface(図解あり)
The significant vertical or oblique stroke.
 
Kane, John. A Type Primer. Laurence King Publishing, 2002, 208p. (p.52)
 
A Type Primer p.52の書影【Google Books】(図解あり)

関連項目 related terms

語義1 definition 1
  • base?
  • root word?
  • theme?
語義2 definition 2
語義3 definition 3

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