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カルチャー>その他>ロシア1800年代の核戦争

Darkness by Byron (1816)


英国の詩人バイロンが詩「Darkness- (闇黒)」を作った1816年は、いわゆる「夏の来なかった年」であり、ボローニャの天文学者が太陽の詩を予言した年でもあった。まさしく、その時代の雰囲気を反映した作品だったとされる。
"The bright sun was extinguish'd": The Bologna Prophecy and Byron's "Darkness"
Jeffrey Vail University of Delaware

Lord Byron's poem "Darkness- begins with a line that has been somewhat puzzling to modern readers: -I had a dream, which was not all a dream- (1). In what sense, readers have wondered, was Byron's poetic depiction of the extinction of the sun ''not all- a dream? The first English and European readers of -Darkness," who had only a few months before suffered through the grim summer of 1816, would not have found this line mysterious. A catastrophe such as the poem describes had indeed been more than a dream during that summer: an Italian astronomer had actually predicted that the sun would burn itself out on July 18. and he convinced many people throughout England and Europe that the end of the world was approaching. This prediction of the sun's death was seemingly substantiated by the high number of sunspots that began to spread across the sun like a -black bile- and by the fact that Europe was in the grip of the coldest summer on record, a phenomenon for which no other explanation could be found.' Rumors of the Bolognese astronomer's prophecy rapidly circulated among the populations of several countries, >

バイロン卿の詩「闇黒」は、現代の読者にとってやや不可解な一節から始まる:「我は嘗て一の夢を見ぬ、さはれそは全く夢にもあらざりき。」読者が戸惑うのは、太陽の死滅を「全く夢にもあらざりき」とするバイロンの詩的表現が何を意味するかだろう。数か月前に1816年の気味悪い夏を過ごした、この誌の最初の英国及び欧州の読者たちは、不思議に思うことはなかっただろう。詩が表現するような大惨事は、確かにその夏の夢以上のものだった。イタリアの天文学者は、7月18日に太陽が燃え尽きると実際に予測し、英国と欧州の多くの人々に世界の終わりが迫っていることを確信させた。太陽の死滅の予測は、-黒い胆汁-のように太陽全体に広がり始めた多数の黒点と、欧州が記録上最も寒い夏の危機に瀕しているという、他の説明が見つからない現象の事実によって実証されたようだった。ボローニャの天文学者の予言の噂は、いくつかの国の人々の間で急速に広まった。
~^ [ Vail, Jeffrey. "'the Bright Sun was Extinguis'd': The Bologna Prophecy and Byron's 'Darkness'." Wordsworth Circle 28: (1997) 183–92. ]
そのような夏の来なかった年のことを考えれば、なんら不可解なものを感じない、詩である。
Darkness
BY LORD BYRON (GEORGE GORDON)

I had a dream, which was not all a dream.
The bright sun was extinguish'd, and the stars
Did wander darkling in the eternal space,
Rayless, and pathless, and the icy earth
Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air;
Morn came and went—and came, and brought no day,
And men forgot their passions in the dread
Of this their desolation; and all hearts
Were chill'd into a selfish prayer for light:
And they did live by watchfires—and the thrones,
The palaces of crowned kings—the huts,
The habitations of all things which dwell,
Were burnt for beacons; cities were consum'd,
And men were gather'd round their blazing homes
To look once more into each other's face;
Happy were those who dwelt within the eye
Of the volcanos, and their mountain-torch:
A fearful hope was all the world contain'd;
Forests were set on fire—but hour by hour
They fell and faded—and the crackling trunks
''Extinguish'd with a crash—and all was black.''
The brows of men by the despairing light
Wore an unearthly aspect, as by fits
The flashes fell upon them; some lay down
And hid their eyes and wept; and some did rest
Their chins upon their clenched hands, and smil'd;
And others hurried to and fro, and fed
Their funeral piles with fuel, and look'd up
With mad disquietude on the dull sky,
The pall of a past world; and then again
With curses cast them down upon the dust,
And gnash'd their teeth and howl'd: the wild birds shriek'd
And, terrified, did flutter on the ground,
And flap their useless wings; the wildest brutes
Came tame and tremulous; and vipers crawl'd
And twin'd themselves among the multitude,
Hissing, but stingless—they were slain for food.
And War, which for a moment was no more,
Did glut himself again: a meal was bought
With blood, and each sate sullenly apart
Gorging himself in gloom: no love was left;
All earth was but one thought—and that was death
Immediate and inglorious; and the pang
Of famine fed upon all entrails—men
Died, and their bones were tombless as their flesh;
The meagre by the meagre were devour'd,
Even dogs assail'd their masters, all save one,
And he was faithful to a corse, and kept
The birds and beasts and famish'd men at bay,
Till hunger clung them, or the dropping dead
Lur'd their lank jaws; himself sought out no food,
But with a piteous and perpetual moan,
And a quick desolate cry, licking the hand
Which answer'd not with a caress—he died.
The crowd was famish'd by degrees; but two
Of an enormous city did survive,
And they were enemies: they met beside
The dying embers of an altar-place
Where had been heap'd a mass of holy things
For an unholy usage; they rak'd up,
And shivering scrap'd with their cold skeleton hands
The feeble ashes, and their feeble breath
Blew for a little life, and made a flame
Which was a mockery; then they lifted up
Their eyes as it grew lighter, and beheld
Each other's aspects—saw, and shriek'd, and died—
Even of their mutual hideousness they died,
Unknowing who he was upon whose brow
Famine had written Fiend. The world was void,
The populous and the powerful was a lump,
Seasonless, herbless, treeless, manless, lifeless
A lump of death—a chaos of hard clay.
The rivers, lakes and ocean all stood still,
And nothing stirr'd within their silent depths;
Ships sailorless lay rotting on the sea,
And their masts fell down piecemeal: as they dropp'd
They slept on the abyss without a surge—
The waves were dead; the tides were in their grave,
The moon, their mistress, had expir'd before;
The winds were wither'd in the stagnant air,
And the clouds perish'd; Darkness had no need
Of aid from them—She was the Universe.

[ "Darkness" ]
『短編バイロン詩集』35闇黒
  第三十五、闇(ダーク子ツス)

我は嘗て一の夢を見ぬ、
さはれそは全く夢にもあらざりき。
赫燿たる太陽消え果てゝ、幾多の星辰は
無涯の空間の中を淋しく彷徨ひ、
光なく、道なく而しての氷如き地球は、
朦朧と月なき空に漂ひぬ、
朝は來りて又た行けり──來れども日は來らず、
人々は此暗澹たる荒凉を、
恐ろしと思ふの念を忘れ、
あらゆる心情は只だ光輝を望む
一種自己的祈願に戰慄せり、
而して彼等は警火によりて生活し──
玉座、帝王の宮殿──茅舍、
その他、人の住する數多の家屋は、
凡て烽火として燒かれ破こぼたれ、
あらゆる都市は滅盡せられ、
人々は尚いま一度なりとも相互に、
其顏を見合はんと燃えつゝある、
それらの家屋の周圍に群集しき
噴火山の中心及び山火の中に
住居せる人々は幸福なり、
一の恐るべき希望は全世界を包含しぬ、
森林原野は火を放たる──されど
一時又一時それ等も燒け盡して──
鳴り響く樹幹も、一の激しき
音に消えて──四面暗くなれり。
人々の額は、餘燼の光に、
異常なる不可思議の容貌となり、
一閃一滅、光はそれ等の上に物凄く落ちき、
或者は倒れ伏して其眼を掩ひて泣き、
或者は堅く握りたる手の上に、
その願を置いて休みつゝ微笑し、
他の者は彼方此方と急ぎ廻りて、
屍を燒く柴堆に薪を加へ、
過ぎし世界の柩衣なる幽暗の空を
物狂はしき不穩を以て見上げ、
而して又、忌々しげに身を塵埃に抛げ、
齒を喰ひ縛りて力なく喚うめきぬ、
野鳥は怪しく叫びて、懼れて、
その無用の羽翼を地上にはゞたきし、
猛獸は馴れて戰き來たり、
虫蛇は自ら、群衆の内に纒卷し、
叱聲を發せども刺針なく──
食物として人々に投されたり、
戰亂は最早瞬時あらずして、
再び自身と飽食し──一食は、
血液を以て購はれ、慘憺の中に
各く沈欝として離れ坐して貪食し、
何等の愛情も影を留めず、
あらゆる地球は只だ一の思想なりき──
そは不面目なる迫れる死にして、
飢餓の苦痛は凡ての内臟を食ひ──
人々は死して其枯骨は
肉も均しく墓もなく横はり、
瘠痩者は瘠痩者の爲めに喰ひ盡され、
はては犬さへも畜ひ主を襲ひぬ、
されど只だ一匹の犬は一の死骸に忠實にして、
鳥獸を逐ひ、人々を退けたれど、
飢は彼等に迫りて、降りかゝれる死は、
痩せたる彼等の顎を誘惑せり、
かの犬は食を搜せども一塊の食だになく、
憐れに淋しき一の呻うめきと
悲しき一の斷膓の叫びを洩して、
懷かしき主の手を舐りて※てへん+吾けども、
魂魄去りて又撫愛を得るに由もなく──
あはれ無殘や、彼は遂に呼吸絶えぬ。
群衆は漸次に餓死せども、一の
無道なる都市の二人は生殘れり、
彼等は互に仇敵にして、一種不淨なる慣例として
神聖なる事物の一團を積みたりし、
祭壇の餘燼の側に遭遇し、
戰慄しつゝ、その冷へたる骨立てる手を以て、
消へ殘りたる灰を掻き集め、
力なき呼吸によりて僅かに生を支へ、
火焔を造らんとすれど無益なりき、
斯くして彼等は漸く氣力を得て、
その眼を上げて互に顏を見たり──
見て、悲叫して、而して死しぬ──
飢餓の其額の上に仇敵と、
書きたりしは誰なるを知らずして
彼等は互の忌はしさに逝けるなり。
全世界は空虚となりて、
人口多く有勢なるものは一の塊團となり、
"四季なく草葉なく樹木なく、"
"人なく生命なく──死の塊團──"
堅き粘土の渾沌界となり果てぬ。
あらゆる河川、あらゆる沼湖、
及び太平洋等凡て寂寥となり、
何物も其深碧の内に動かず、
船舶は水夫なくして朽ちて海上を漂ひ、
その帆檣は破れて斷々となり、
落花すれば浪なき蒼溟の上に眠る──
波濤は早や死して潮流は其墓にあり
その妻なる嫦娥は既に/\滅し、
嵐風は不動の空に衰殘して、
雲霧も又盡滅せり、
暗(ダーク子ツス)はそれ等の助を借るを要せず──
宇宙(ユーニバース)は實に/\闇遒修里發里覆蠅。

[ 児玉花外(伝八)訳, 大学館, 1897 ]
しかし、特に太字にした表現などに注目して、これをロシアの1800年代核戦争ネタの根拠とする者もいるという



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