Zivilverteidigungsbuch (スイス民間防衛)の主筆者Albert Bachmann大佐

2011年に81歳で死去したAlbert Bachmannは、スイスの軍情報機関の最もパラノイドなリーダーだった。
[ "Colonel Albert Bachmann" (2011/05/05) on Telegraph ]

Colonel Albert Bachmann, who has died aged 81, was Switzerland’s best-known and most paranoid spymaster, in a country that traditionally has no enemies and refrains from foreign entanglements.

81歳で死去したAlbert Bachmann大佐は、伝統的に中立の立場をとる国であるスイスで、最も有名で、最もパラノイドな、情報機関のリーダーだった。
His most controversial, some would say delusional, acts occurred between 1976 and 1979, when he took charge of top-secret operations for Switzerland’s military intelligence force, the Untergruppe Nachrichtendienst der Armee (UNA). Though Bachmann had flirted with communism in his student days, he was by then a fanatical Cold Warrior, and brought the zeal of the convert to the fight against the Soviet Union.


His first significant move was to buy a country estate in Ireland for use by a Swiss government-in-exile in the event of a Soviet invasion. His second bold step was Projekt-26 (P-26), the creation of a clandestine army of Swiss guerrillas trained in weaponry, bombing and assassination techniques to repel the dreaded Soviet attack.

The problem was that neither the Irish venture nor the secret anti-Soviet army had been officially authorised, and were the fruits of what Bachmann called his “initiative”. Others would come to call it insubordination or even fantasy.



But neither plan stalled Bachmann’s rise. Indeed, his intelligence career was curtailed only after a top-level investigation into an operation he sanctioned in 1979 that deeply embarrassed Switzerland and Austria — friendly neighbours with the same neutral status and few if any military secrets to hide from one another.


Bachmannが情報機関を追われることになったSchilling incidentは、笑える事件だった。
In November that year, Austrian troops on manoeuvres in the city of St Pölten tapped on the window of a parked car at 2.30am and were surprised to find inside not a courting couple but a Swiss management consultant called Kurt Schilling.

Schilling, an expert time-and-motion man but an inept spy, was sitting in the front seat with binoculars, map and notepad, staring into the darkness. He had been ordered there, he was happy to recount, by Bachmann, his case officer.

When Schilling asked the soldiers for particulars about their positions, they marched him straight to the state police. His arrest on charges of spying for information freely available to Swiss and other foreign observers at the manoeuvres was portrayed in the press as worthy of a comic opera.

At his subsequent trial for espionage, it emerged that Schilling had been seeking to establish how long Austria could hold out in the event of a Soviet invasion. Taking account of the botched execution of his mission, the court leniently sentenced him to a suspended five-month term and deportation back to Switzerland.

The press mocked Schilling as “the spy who came in from the Emmenthaler”, after Switzerland’s famous cheese. But it was Bachmann’s career that never recovered. In the wake of the Schilling debacle, it became clear that Bachmann and his department were out of control. His boss was forced to resign, and Bachmann himself – exposed as a loose cannon, unchecked and unregulated – was consigned to early retirement.

その年の11月、St Pölten市で演習中のオーストリア軍部隊が、午前2:30に駐車している自動車の中に、熱愛中のカップルではなく、Kurt Schillingというスイスの経営コンサルタントがいるのを見つけて、驚いた。





[ "Colonel Albert Bachmann" (2011/05/05) on Telegraph ]
Schilling incidentそのものは、まさしく喜劇でしかなかった。しかし、公式に承認されていない作戦を実行してきたことが明らかにするという意味はあった。結果として、Bachmannは軍情報機関での地位を失った。

そんなAlbert Bachmannは若き日は共産主義者だったが、1948年のプラハの共産クーデターをきっかけに転向し、軍務に就いて、スイス軍情報機関員となった。
Albert Bachmann was born in Zurich on November 26 1929, the son of a house painter, and grew up in humble circumstances. While employed as a printer, he enrolled in the youth wing of the PDA, the Swiss communist party. But in 1948, following the communist coup in Prague, he renounced his Left-wing sympathies, became staunchly pro-West and began his National Service with the Swiss grenadiers.

His military career blossomed, and against expectations (he had completed only eight years at school) Bachmann successfully applied to the officer training academy, where he specialised in intelligence gathering with the Swiss military intelligence service.

Albert Bachmannは1929年11月26日にチューリッヒで、塗装業者の子として生まれ、貧しい家庭で育った。彼は印刷会社に就職するとともに、スイス共産党の青年部に入った。しかし、1948年のプラハの共産クーデターの後、彼は左翼へのシンパシーを捨てて、断固たる西側支持者となり、スイス擲弾兵として兵役に就いた。


[ "Colonel Albert Bachmann" (2011/05/05) on Telegraph ]
There, in 1968, he caused a stir as lead author of an official civil defence booklet, delivered to every household in Switzerland, with instructions on how to withstand invasion by an occupying power. In it Bachmann asserted that the gravest danger lay not just with the enemy but with the Swiss political Left, specifically pacifists and intellectuals, just the sort of people with whom he had himself mixed in the PDA.

In his anti-communist booklet, with its plain red cover redolent of the Little Red Book of the Chinese Maoist era, Bachmann controversially urged Swiss citizens to spy on one another.



[ "Colonel Albert Bachmann" (2011/05/05) on Telegraph ]
Zivilverteidigungsbuchは、1930年代にはじまるスイスの精神的国土防衛の流れをくむものだが、Albert Bachmann自身の思いも反映していたのかも。

Zivilverteidigungsbuchの校正を行うAlbert Bachmann:

1969 wird das vom Generalstabsoffizier Albert Bachmann verfasste Zivilverteidigungsbuch allen schweizerischen Haushaltungen zugestellt. Ganz der Tradition der mittlerweile überkommenen Geistigen Landesverteidigung verhaftet, löst es heftige Proteste, massenhafte Rücksendungen und sogar öffentliche Verbrennungen aus.

1969年に、参謀本部員Albert Bachmannによって書かれた「民間防衛」の本が、スイス全世帯に配布された。スイス精神的国土防衛の伝統に満ちており、激しい抗議や大量の返本や、さらには焚書まで行われた。

[ «Zivilverteidigung», das helvetische Rote Büchlein (1969/10/13) ]

なお、撮影時期は不明だが、Albert Bachmann退役大佐の晩年の姿を記録したと思われる動画がある。