エスペラント語の修正版として開発された人工言語、国際補助語です。

**** Lesson 24 - Duadek-e-quaresma Leciono ************************************

The Conjugation:---------------------------------------------------------------

How to translate SHALL:--------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it is a simple future, use -os:
    I shall be here tomorrow. - Me esos hike morge.
(2) If it means "duty", use 'devar' or the imperative:
    He shall do it. - Ilu devas facar lo.
    Thou shalt not bear false witnes. - Tu ne false atestez.

How to translate WILL:---------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it is a simple future, use -os:
    He will write to yo. - Ilu skribos a vu.
(2) If it means "emphasis", use 'ya' with future:
    I will do it. - Me ya facos lo.
(3) If it means 'to be willing', 'to be so good', use 'voluntar':
    Will you do me a favour? - Ka vu volutas facar favoro a me?\
(4) As a frequentative,
       it is not translated (except by a periphrase or by -ad-):
    Sometimes he will look in of an evening.
    Kelka-foye ilu venas vizitar ni en la vespero. ...or
    Eventas kelka-foye ke ilu venas vizitar ni. ...or
    Ilu vizitadias ni vespere.

How to translate SHOULD:-------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it is a simple conditionasl, use -us:
    I should be glad to have it.
    Me esus felica havar ol, or, Se me havus ol.
(2) If it means 'ought', use 'devas':
    You should write to them. - Vu devas skribar a li.
       When really conditional, 'devus' not 'devas' is used. Compare
          "You ought (devas) to do it if you can." (possible) and
          "You ought (devus) to do if if you could." (not probable).
(3) At beginning of the sentence, use 'se' with future:
    Should you require my services. - Se vu bezonos mea servi.

How to translate WOULD:--------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it is a simple conditional, use -us:
    He would not forget it. - Ilu ne oblivius ol.
(2) If it means "insistence", use 'volis' (=did want):
    I tried to stop him, but he would do it.
    Me probis haltigar il, ma ilu volis facar ol.
(3) If it means "habit", use -ad-:
    She would sit on that little chair. - Elu sidadis sur ta stuleto.
(4) In the phrase 'would that', use either 'Se nur' with conditional or
       'Deo volez ke' with imperative:
    Would that we were younger again! - Se nur ni esus itere yuna.
    Would that peace reigned everywhere! - Deo volez ke paco omna-loke regnez!

How to translate MAY:----------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it means 'perhaps', use 'forsan':
    It may rain. - Forsan pluvos.
    It may be so. - Forsan esas tale.
(2) If it means "permission", use 'darfar' or a periphrase:
    May I come in? - Ka me darfas en-venar?
    You may not do it (=you are not allowed to do it.) - Vu ne darfas facar ol.
    You may not do it (=perhaps you won't do it.) - Forsan vu ne facos ol.

How to translate MUST:---------------------------------------------------------
(1) With a personal subject, use the personal verb 'mustar':
    I must go. - Me mustas departar.
(2) When the subject cannot, or need not, be expressed use the impersonal verb
       'oportar': We must go now. - Oportas departar nun.
(3) Sometimes an adjective in -end suffices:
    A book that must be read. - Libro lektenda.

How to translate CAN AFFORD:---------------------------------------------------
(1) afordar* (= can afford) : posedar suficanta tempo, pekunio, moyeni edc.

    I can't afford the time, nor the money. -
    Me ne afordas (facar lo) per la tempo, nek per la pekunio.

    I can't afford a car. -
    Me ne afordas havar automobilo.

    I cannot afford to die yet. -
    Me ankore ne afordas mortar. 

    I can afford to be frank. -
    Me afordas dicar libere e honeste.

(2) In other verbs than afordar*

    I can't afford the time. -
    Me ne povas trovar la tempo libera.

    I can't afford it. -
    Mea moyeni ne permisas .
    Me ne povas sustenar o suportar la spensi di.
    Me ne esas sat richa.

Frequentative Form:------------------------------------------------------------
The word 'used to', when it really means "a habit", is translated by affix -ad:
    We used to walk up and down for hours. - Ni iradis e venadis dum hori.

Change of Tense:---------------------------------------------------------------
(1) In Ido tenses do not govern each other:
    I thought it was raining. - Me pensis ke pluvas.
       (= I thought that is is raining. "It is raining", I thougt.)
    He found she was tired. - Ilu trovis ke elu esas fatigita.
       (= He found that she is tired - at the time he found it.)
(2) The English present perfect with date is translated by present tense and
       the word 'since'.
    I have known it these four days. - Me savas lo de quar dii.
       (= I know it from four days.)
    I have been here two months. - Me esas hike de du monati.
    I had been in Rome a week when I received your letter.
       (= I was in Rome from a week ...)
    Me esis en Roma de un semano, kande me recevis vua letro.
(3) The English preterite with 'for' equals a past tense with 'dum'.
    I was there for two months (=during two months).
    Me esis ibe dum du monati.
    She used it for one year. - Elu uzis oll dum un yaro.

Tagged Questions and the like:-------------------------------------------------
The following examples will explain better than any rule how to translate
   sentences of the sort:
   Are you tired? - Ka vu esas fatigita?
   I am not tired. - Me ne esas fatigita.
   You are tired, aren't you? - Vu eass fatigita, ka ne?
   You aren't tired, are you? - Vu ne esas fatigita, ka yes?
   I am not tired; are you? - Me ne esas fatigita; ka vu (esas)?
   I am tired; aren't you? - Me esas fatigita; ka vu ne (esas)?
   He is tired, isn't he? - Ilu esas fatigita, ka ne?
   He isn't tired, is he? - Ilu ne esas fatigita, ka yes?
   I have finished; have you? - Me ja finis; ka vu (anke)?
   I have! - Me anke!
   Has he? - Kad ilu (anke)?
   He hasn't. - Ilu ne.
   You'll come, won't you? - Vu venos, ka ne?
   She won't come; will you? - Elu ne volas venar; ka vu volas?
   I don't know, I am sure. - Me tote ne savas.
   Oh! do! please! - Ho, yes! (venez) me pregas!



XXXXX << The unofficial world of Ido >> XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Note: Some Idists use "ka No?" for "ka ne?" and "kad Yes?" for "ka yes?"

   Bluto, Tu esas ne'polita, ka No?
   No, me ne esas ne'polita, Popeye.

   or ....

   Bluto, Tu esas ne'polita, ka Ne?
   No, me ne esas ne'polita, Popeye.


   Olive, Tu ne esas ne'polita, kad Yes?
   Ma Yes, me deziras esar ne'polita precipue por tu, Bluto.

   or ....

   Olive, Tu ne esas ne'polita, ka yes?
   Ma Yes, me deziras esar ne'polita precipue por tu, Bluto.

How to translate "it":---------------------------------------------------------

It was in 1989 that the Berlin Wall was taken down.
Esis en 1989 (l'evento) ke la muro Komunismal di Berlin demolisesis.

It is a virtue never to tell a lie.
Esas vertuo jame* (nulkande) mentiar. =
Jame* mentiar esas vertuo.

There is a virtue of never telling a lie.
Esas vertuo di jame* mentiar. =
Vertuo di jame* mentiar existas.

I found the dress beautiful.:--------------------------------------------------

I found the beautiful dress. = Me trovis la bela robo.
I found the dress beautiful. = Me trovis la robo esar/ye bela.

Me trovis ke la tigro esas kuranta. =
Me trovis la tigro kuranta? No! = Me trovis la kuranta tigro. Do (then) ->
Me trovis la tigro esar/ye kuranta.

Hiere nokte me trovis tu esar/ye bela en ta robo. =
Hiere nokte me trovis ke tu esas bela en ta robo. 

Substantivo + (di)?+ infinitivo:-----------------------------------------------

Me trovis la tigro kurar. = Me trovis ke la tigro kuras.

La soldato trovis la loko mortar? No! La loko ne mortas. Do (then) ->
La soldato trovis la loko di mortar.

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