初めてのイド語 - Elementary Lessons 06
**** Lesson 06 - Sisesma Leciono **********************************************

Interrogative Pronouns (1):----------------------------------------------------
These could possibly present a little difficulty at first, but need not do so
   if studied carefully.
   Qua regardas me? - Who is looking at me?
   Qua amas il? - Who loves him?

From the above examples you will see that 'qua' means 'who'. However, if it is
   known that 'who' is more than one person then 'qui' should be used:
   Qui regardas me? - Who is looking at me?
   Qui amas il? - Who loves him?

In the case of an unknown object or thing 'quo' is used.
   It corresponds to 'what' in English.
   Quo esas/es en la buxo? - What is in the box?
   Quo eventis? - What happened?

Note in Ido it is not necessary to change the word order when making questions,
   though it is in English.
   (English) 'He is' becomes 'Who is he?'
   (Ido) 'Il es' becomes 'Qua ilu es?' (Qua esas/es il?)

Exempli:MP3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Who is he? - Qua ilu esas?
Who was ill? - Qua esis malada?
What is in the garden? - Quo esas/es en la gardeno?
Who did George's work? - Qua facis la laboro di Georgio?
Who loves the old horse? - Qua amas la olda kavalo?
What is eating my apples? - Quo manjas mea pomi?
Who came here with the dog? - Qui venis ad'hike kun la hundo?
Who is learning Ido in this school? - Qui lernas Ido en ca skolo?
Who went to the school with white mice? - Qui iris a la skolo kun blanka musi?
Who visits the friends of the old shopkeeper? -
   Qua vizitas la amiki di la olda butikisti?

Numerals:---------------------------------------------------------------------
un - one   du - two   tri - three   quar - four   kin - five   sis - six
sep - seven   ok - eight   non - nine   dek - ten

Exempli:MP3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I have ten cats. - Me havas dek kati.
I have one brother. - Me havas un fratulo.
Nine girls visited me. - Non yunini vizitis me.
My brother saw three birds. - Mea fratulo vidis tri uceli.
Who has two bottles of beer? - Qua havas du boteli de biro?
The dog is eating five cakes. - La hundo manjas kin kuki.
She is not buying six apples. - Elu ne kompras sis pomi.
We have only four clean shoes. - Ni havas nur quar neta shui.
Are seven flowers in the garden? - Ka sep flori esas/es en la gardeno?
Mary's house hasn't got eight windows. - La domo di Maria ne havas ok fenestri.

Vortifado:---------------------------------------------------------------------
   -ey- (place or room devoted to some object or action):
       It is used in the construction of many common words: pregeyo - oratory
       koqueyo - kitchen (koquas - cooks)   tombeyo - cemetery
       kavaleyo - stable (place for horses)   hundeyo - kennel (place for dogs)
       viteyo - vineyard    --- as well as for others of a more general nature:
       lerneyo - school-room   lojeyo - dwelling place
       dormeyo - a sleeping place/dormitory
   Work out for yourself the meaning of the -eyo words elsewhere.
   As the meaning of this suffix is rather wide, special words are to be used
       where the sense requires them: universitato, skolo, etc., for lerneyo;
       katedralo, kirko, etc., for pregeyo.

Vortifado:---------------------------------------------------------------------
   -uy- (receptacle): inkuyo - inkwell   kafeuyo - coffee-box
       teuyo - tea-caddy   sigaruyo - cigar-box
       NOTE: coffee-pot, tea-pot are kafe-krucho, te-krucho.

   -i- (domain or sphere of action): dukio - duchy   komtio - county
       episkopio - bishopric

   -ed- (the full of, amount corresponding to): bokedo - mouthful
       pinchedo - pinch   glutedo - gulp

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
rezidas - resides, dwells, lives
  The following two words are more specific than 'rezidas':
  lojas - lives for a limited time (in someone else's house etc.)
  habitas - lives permanently (in one's own house etc.)
     On lojas tempe (kurte) che altra persono od en gasteyo.
     On habitas permanente en propra o fixa domo.
     On habitas urbo, che amiko, parento, en apartamento, en chambro, e.c.

laboras - works,  trovas - finds,  sidas - sits

Exempli:MP3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The pub is your place of work. - La drinkerio esas/es vua laboreyo.
The children are in the stable. - La pueri esas/es en la kavaleyo.
My dog doesn't live in a kennel. - Mea hundo ne habitas en hundeyo.
We have a fish pond in our garden. - Ni havas fisheyo en nia gardeno.
The house has a beautiful kitchen. - La domo havas bela koqueyo.
The children eat in the dining hall. - La yuni manjas en la manjeyo.
She didn't find a sitting place (seat). - Elu ne trovis sideyo.
My house is the dwelling place of many mice. -
   Mea domo esas/es la rezideyo di multa musi.
They didn't find a drinking place for the horses. -
   Li ne trovis drinkeyo por la kavali.
They don't have a place to sleep (dormitory) in the school. -
   Li ne havas dormeyo en la skolo.

Dum, en:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Note the following difference carefully.
   Me manjis dum la nokto. - I ate during the night.
      (throughout the whole night).
   Me manjis en la nokto. - I ate during the night.
      (at one or more different times during the night).

Od/o -or:----------------------------------------------------------------------
Note that as with 'ed/e', 'od' is generally used when the next word starts with
   a vowel, and 'o' is used when it begins with a consonant.

Vortifado:- Adjektivi kun nuanci ----------------------------------------------
   -al- (forms adjectives meaning "belonging to" or "relating to"):
       universala - universal   racionala - rational

   -oz- (means "full of", "containing", "rich in"): poroza - porous
       sabloza - sandy   kurajoza - courageous   famoza - famous

   -em- (means "inclined to"): babilema - talkative   ociema - lazy
       laborema - industrious

   -ik- (means "sick of", "suffering from"): ftiziiko - consumptive
       artritiko - arthritic   alkoholiko - alcoholic patient

   -atr- (means "like", "similar to", "-ish"): sponjatra - spongy
       haratra - hair-like   verdatra - greenish

   -e- (means "having the appearance or colour of"): rozea - rozy, pink
       violea - violet (-coloured)   musea - mouse-coloured

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
armeo - army,  automobilo - car,  biciklo - bicycle,  divenis - became,
dormeyo - sleeping place,  konduktas - drives,  grandega - enormous,
kamionisto - lorry driver,  kamiono - lorry, truck,  pos - after,
patro - father, posdimezo - afternoon,  soldato - soldier,  vespero - evening,
ipsa - self, lito - bed,  milito - war,  nokto - night,  od/o - or,
pri - about, dum - during/throughout,  sen - without

Mea Patro:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mea patro esis soldato dum la milito. En la armeo ilu lernis pri automobili e
   kamioni. Ilu konduktis kamioni. Pos la milito ilu divenis kamionisto. Ilu nun
   konduktas grandega kamioni. Ilu konduktas dum la matino e dum la posdimezo.
   Ofte ilu konduktas kamioni dum la vespero e la nokto sen dormar.
Kande me esis puero me ofte iris kun ilu en la kamiono. Ni vizitis multa urbi.
   Dum la nokto ni dormis sur lito en la kamiono od en dormeyo por kamionisti.
   Me ipsa ne konduktas automobilo. Me esas/es tro yuna. Me havas biciklo.

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
aparas - appears,  autuno - autumn,  brilas - shines,  ca - this,
dop - behind, desaparas - disappears,  horizonto - horizon,  jorno - day,
kantas - sings,  kolda - cold,  kovrilo - blanket/cover,  lana - woollen,
luno - moon, nepluse - no longer,  plura - several,  printempo - spring,
somero - summer,  stelo - star,  suno - sun,  tante - so,  trovas - finds,
ucelo - bird,  uzas - uses,  varma - warm,  venas - comes,  vintro - winter,
sama ... kam - same ... with,  quale - as/like

Exempli:MP3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What is here? - Quo esas/es hike?
Who lives here? - Qua habitas hike?
Where is my bed? - Ube mea lito esas?
Where is your cat? - Ube vua kato esas?
What is in the truck (lorry)? - Quo esas/es en la kamiono?
Who (plural) are you? - Qui vi esas?
Who (plural) are they? - Qui li esas?
Who has enormous shoes? - Qua havas grandega shui?
Who lives in the garden? - Qua lojas en la gardeno?
Who (plural) has the red bicycles? - Qui havas la reda bicikli?

Exempli:MP3
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Four warm nights. - Quar varma nokti.
Nine brown birds. - Non bruna uceli.
After three evenings. - Pos tri vesperi.
Ten enormous mothers. - Dek grandega matri.
Six stars are shining. - Sis steli brilas.
Eight woollen blankets. - Ok lana kovrili.
The same seven blankets. - La sama sep kovrili.
Two sick soldiers lived here. - Du malada soldati rezidis hike.
Five horses slept in this bed. - Kin kavali dormis en ca lito.
One fierce old cat was under the bed. -
   Un feroca olda kato esis sub la lito.

Bona Nokto:MP3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dum la jorno la suno brilas. En la vespero la suno desaparas dop la horizonto.
   La uceli nepluse kantas. Li trovas dormeyo en la arbori e li dormas.
   La nokto venas. En la nokto la luno aparas e la steli brilas. En la nokto me
   iras a lito e lektas libro dum un horo ante dormar (before falling asleep).
Me havas grandega lito qua esas/es en mea dormo-chambro.
   Mea chambro ne esas/es varma dum la printempo e me uzas kin kovrili.
   Dum la somero la vetero esas/es varma e mea chambro ne esas/es kolda.
      Me uzas nur un kovrilo.
   En la autuno la vetero divenas kolda. Me uzas plura kovrili.
      Me uzas sis lana kovrili.
   Dum la vintro la vetero esas/es tante kolda ke me uzas dek kovrili,
      e mea du granda hundi dormas en la sama lito kam la mea (quale me).

La familio [fa-MI-lyo] - the family:-------------------------------------------
avo - grandparent,  avino - grandmother,  avulo - grandfather,
patro - father,  matro - mother,  genitoro - parent,  parento - relative,
spozo - spouse,  spozino - wife,  spozulo - husband,
filio [FI-lyo] - son/daughter,  filiino [fi-li-I-no] - daughter,
filiulo [fi-li-U-lo] - son,  gefilii [ge-FI-lyi] - son(s) and daughter(s),
frato - brother/sister,  fratino - sister,  fratulo - brother,
nepoto - grandchild,  nepotino - granddaughter,  nepotulo - grandson,
onklo - uncle/aunt,  onklino - aunt,  onklulo - uncle,
kuzo - cousin,  kuzino - cousin (female),  kuzulo - cousin (male),
nevo - nephew/niece,  nevino - niece,  nevulo - nephew


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fairo [fa-I-ro}, veino [ve-I-no] o naiva [na-I-va]:---------------------------

The spellings of AY, EY, IY, OY ed UY are separately pronounced
when followed by the vowels as in 

   lerneyo, lerne'yo [ler-NE-yo], lojeyo, loje'yo [lo-JE-yo],
   dormeyo, dorme'yo [dor-ME-yo], inkuyo, inku'yo [in-KU-yo],
   kafeuyo, kafeu'yo [ka-fe-U-yo] edc.

but they are dipthongs when follewd by the consonats as in newly proposed words:
   
   taypar* [tay-PAR], fayro* [FAY-ro}, veyno* [VEY-no] edc.