「宗教の中心的なメッセージは平和と愛であるなら、信者たちは暴力行為を扇動できるだろうか?」についての研究 Jones et al(2020)が論文掲載された。

これについて、心理学者David Ludden Ph.D.が解説記事を書いている。
Given that the central message of religion is peace and love, how is it then that the faithful can be incited to acts of violence? This is the question that University of Nevada Reno psychologist Daniel Jones and colleagues explored in a study recently published in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Jones and colleagues begin by considering other instances of violence toward members of an out-group. For people who are high in a personality trait called social dominance orientation, society is naturally organized as a hierarchy. On this view, which rung on the social ladder you belong to is determined by obvious identifiers such as gender and race.

宗教の中心的なメッセージは平和と愛であるなら、信者たちは暴力行為を扇動できるだろうか?これは、University of Nevada Renoの心理学者Daniel Jonesたちが最近、Social Psychological and Personality Scienceに掲載した研究で調査した問題である。Jonesたちは外集団メンバーに対する暴力等の事例検討から始める。社会的支配志向と呼ばれる性格特性が高い人にとって、社会は自然にヒエラルキーとして組織されている。この見方では、自分が所属する序列構造は、性別や人種など明白な識別子によって決定される。

[ David Ludden Ph.D.: "Why People Kill in the Name of God" (2020/06/08) on PsychologyToday ]
Those who view themselves as members of the socially dominant class can treat their “underlings” with a modicum of dignity as long as those people “know their place.” However, they also respond violently to any perceived challenge to their privileged status. The rash of hate crimes and racial violence in the US in recent years is no doubt a reaction to improving political and economic circumstances for women and minorities.

A common characteristic of people high in social dominance orientation is self-enhancement, which is the tendency to see yourself in an overly favorable manner. Such people feel driven to engage in acts that support their superiority or protect their delicate but overinflated egos.

For example, although many such people are quite ignorant of history, science, or even the basic facts of the world, they’re unwilling to admit what they don’t know. As a result, they’re highly susceptible to the “false facts” of government propaganda and entertainment media masquerading as news networks. They also tend to engage in overclaiming, that is, asserting that they know certain patently false concepts to be true.




[ David Ludden Ph.D.: "Why People Kill in the Name of God" (2020/06/08) on PsychologyToday ]
Jones and colleagues started their research with the observation that some people use their religion as a means of self-enhancement. That is, they derive a sense of superiority for themselves because of their faith, especially as compared to non-believers. The researchers then wondered whether those who advocate for religious violence would also overclaim their knowledge of the teachings of their religion.

The researchers recruited over 400 Americans via a service known as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to complete a series of online questionnaires. First, respondents indicated their familiarity with 73 items purportedly from the Bible, with 0 meaning “never heard of it” and 6 meaning “very familiar.” Some of the items, such as “The Ten Commandments,” were known to almost everyone, but some were quite obscure such as “Tobit’s Song of Praise.”

While this survey was presented as a test of Biblical knowledge, it was in fact an assessment of religious overclaiming. This is because the researchers also included realistic sounding items, such as “Soren’s Temple,” that are in fact not part of the Bible. Those who know their religious teachings well should mark these as completely unfamiliar, but those with a tendency toward religious overclaiming should mark them as familiar.


研究者たちは、AmazonのMechanical Turkを通じて400人以上の米国人を募集し、一連のオンラインアンケートを実施した。最初に、被験者たちは聖書にあるとされる73の項目に精通しているか問われ、「0: 聞いたことがない」から「6:非常に精通している」で回答した。 「十戒」などの一部のアイテムはほとんどの人に知られているが、「トビト賛歌」(旧約聖書外典トビト記13章)など一部はかなりあいまいなものだった。


Second, participants responded to a series of questions intended to assess their support for religious aggression. While few actually commit acts of violence in the name of God, many more voice their support for such aggression. Items included statements such as:

I swell with pride when a member of my religion uses violence to get our message across. >
I feel ashamed when someone acts aggressively in the name of God.

Respondents indicated their degree of support for each statement, where 1 meant “strongly disagree” and 5 meant “strongly agree.”

The results were in line with predictions. Those who tended to overclaim their religious knowledge, such as by claiming they were familiar with the fake story of Soren’s temple, also tended to support acts of violence in the name of their religion. However, those who displayed a deep knowledge of their religion’s teaching by correctly rejecting the fake stories also showed little support for religious violence.



被験者はそれぞれの文に対する支持の程度を「1: 強く同意しない」から「5:強く同意する」で回答した。


[ David Ludden Ph.D.: "Why People Kill in the Name of God" (2020/06/08) on PsychologyToday ]
Jones et al 2020は、イスラム教国家であるイランでコーランで同様の実験を行い、キリスト教と聖書の場合の同様の結果を得ている。