Ashe and Poberezhskaya (2022)によれば、ロシアにおける気候変動否定論の影響は大きく、エリート層の政治的言説にも及んでいる。
Climate scepticism is clearly significant in Russia: epistemic scepticism is present within scientific discussions; the media goes back and forth on the anthropogenic nature of climate change; public attitudes show far less conviction and concern than in other countries; elite political discourse makes use of epistemic scepticism when it serves political interests and business narrative works around epistemic issues in order to negotiate the international and domestic economic realities. There is also fear of the economic dangers of climate policy and concerns that Russia would benefit from a warmer climate and that the international community is imposing economic policy on Russia as a form of economic warfare.

However, ‘climate scepticism’ in Russia does not mean quite the same thing that it has meant in the USA and does not entirely follow the patterns suggested by the majority of the literature. It is not a reactive discourse, competing in various social arenas for the power to frame climate change, but an expression of a more ambiguous positioning of a state with its own unique history, character and culture. In all areas studied, the Russian experience cannot be equated with the paradigmatic case of anti-environmentalism in a democratic, capitalist, modernistic society, because the experience and meaning of ‘democracy’, ‘capitalism’ and ‘modernity’ differ.

This is important for the social science scholarship of ACC in recognising the need for further research. Our findings should also be important to all scientists, journalists, environmental communicators, policy-makers or businesses that want to work with or influence semi-authoritarian and authoritarian regimes. Recognising that assumptions and narratives that are established in the west may not be applicable in this context can foster sensitivity in communicating about ACC.




[ Teresa Ashe and Marianna Poberezhskaya: "Russian climate scepticism: an understudied case", Climatic Change volume 172, Article number: 41 (2022) ]

なお、Moscow Times (2021)の報道によれば、ロシア人の26%は地球温暖化は起きておらず、23%はわからないと回答している。
Superjob polled 1,600 “economically active” Russians aged 18 and older from Aug. 17-23, two weeks after United Nations climate scientists released a landmark report that “unequivocally” linked climate change to human activity. The poll was conducted as Russia grappled with unprecedented wildfires in Siberia that experts say were exacerbated by climate change.
Fifty-one percent of Russian respondents said they believe that climate change is real, a 2% increase from the last SuperJob survey in 2009.

But 26% of Russians do not believe that the climate crisis is real, compared to 33% in 2009.

“They most often explain their view from a ‘conspiracy theory’ position: ‘This is not global warming, but a global deceit of all mankind’,” Superjob said, “or ‘If it’s getting warmer, this warming isn’t necessarily caused by humans’.”

Another 23% of Russians said they aren’t sure whether they think climate change is real or not.





[ "25% of Russians Still Skeptical of Climate Change – Poll" (2021/09/07) on Moscow Times ]

2003: Fur coats: “Maybe climate change is not so bad in such a cold country as ours? 2-3 degrees wouldn’t hurt – we’ll spend less on fur coats, and the grain harvest would go up,”

2015: ‘One of the gravest challenges’: In a 2015 address to the UN, Putin had changed his tone, acknowledging that climate change is “one of the gravest challenges humanity is facing” and promising by 2030 to cut Russia’s emissions by 70-75%, compared with 1990 levels.

2017: ‘Invisible changes in the galaxy’: In 2017, Putin said volcanic eruptions are responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than human economic activity. A year later, he said climate change was caused by “changes of global character, cosmic changes, some invisible moves in the galaxy.”

2003: 毛皮のコート: 「我が国のような寒い国では、気候変動はそれほど深刻ではないのではないだろう? 2〜3度なら問題ないだろう。毛皮のコートへの出費も減り、穀物の収穫量も増えるだろう。」

2015年:「最も深刻な課題の一つ」:2015年の国連演説でプーチン大統領は口調を変え、気候変動が「人類が直面している最も深刻な課題の一つ」であることを認め、2030年までにロシアの排出量を70%削減すると約束した。 1990年のレベルと比較して75%削減。


[ "Skepticism to Acceptance: How Putin's Views on Climate Change Evolved Over the Years" (2021/09/07) on Moscow Times

2019: ‘Shaking worms from the ground’: In later years, Putin shifted from outright denial of human-caused climate change to expressing skepticism toward proposed solutions like renewable energy.

“Blind faith in simple, attractive but inefficient solutions leads to problems,” Putin said at a 2019 industry conference, referring to the UN’s recommendations to start transitioning away from fossil fuels.

2019年: 「地面から虫を揺さぶる」: 後年、プーチン大統領は人為的気候変動の完全な否定から、再生可能エネルギーのような提案された解決策に対して懐疑的な姿勢を表明するようになった。
~ 「シンプルで魅力的だが非効率な解決策への盲信は問題を引き起こす」とプーチン大統領は2019年の業界会議で、化石燃料からの移行を開始するという国連の勧告に言及して述べた。

[ "Skepticism to Acceptance: How Putin's Views on Climate Change Evolved Over the Years" (2021/09/07) on Moscow Times

2020: ‘The problem requires more attention’: By 2020, Putin had begun to acknowledge humanity’s role in environmental disasters.

“Humans are still not protected by natural catastrophes, most of which have been caused by anthropogenic interferences,” Putin said during a Valdai Club plenary in October. Human exploitation of natural resources created “critical tension which we can see in the case of climate change,” he said, a problem that “requires real actions and way more attention.”

2020年: 「この問題にはもっと注意が必要だ」: 2020年までに、プーチン大統領は環境災害における人類の役割を認識し始めた。

「人類はいまだ自然災害から守られておらず、そのほとんどは人為的干渉によって引き起こされている」とプーチン大統領は10月のヴァルダイクラブ総会で述べた。 天然資源の人為的搾取は「気候変動の場合にも見られる重大な緊張」を生み出しており、この問題には「実際の行動と、より一層の注意が必要である」と同氏は述べた。

[ "Skepticism to Acceptance: How Putin's Views on Climate Change Evolved Over the Years" (2021/09/07) on Moscow Times






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