“Bad tribalism”

We are built to be tribal. But sometimes that tribalism goes too far. The worst type of tribalism is groups aligned to destroy other groups, such as through ethnic cleansing and genocide. We have heard the word tribalism used a lot today in reference to our politics. Today in our political world, we have “bad tribalism.” Bad tribalism is a group identity that fosters the bullying and scapegoating of others not like you. Bad tribalism joins people out of anger, jealousy, and spite, not for collective well-being. The unfortunate irony is that bad tribalism is easy to provoke, but not healthy to maintain. Staying angry is stressful, and large doses of stress are bad for our health. At the same time, good tribalism is difficult to build, but healthy to maintain. When we connect with others to ensure safety and good health, we lower our own stress.


[ Elizabeth A. Segal, Ph.D.: "When Tribalism Goes Bad" (2019/03/30) on PsychologyToday ]
そのような悪しき部族主義は、かつてGeorge Orwellがナショナリズムとして提示したものである。
By ‘nationalism’ I mean first of all the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labelled ‘good’ or ‘bad’.[1] But secondly ­– and this is much more important – I mean the habit of identifying oneself with a single nation or other unit, placing it beyond good and evil and recognizing no other duty than that of advancing its interests. Nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism. Both words are normally used in so vague a way that any definition is liable to be challenged, but one must draw a distinction between them, since two different and even opposing ideas are involved. By ‘patriotism’ I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality.

「ナショナリズム」とは、まず第1に、人間を昆虫のように分類でき、何百万、何千万もの人々のブロック全体を自信を持って「良い」か「悪い」かに分類できると考える習慣を意味する。[1] しかし、第2に、そしてこちらが、はるかに重要だが、自らを単一国家か他者かを識別し、善悪を超えて、その利益を推進すること以外の義務を認識しないという習慣を意味する。ナショナリズムと愛国心を混同してはならない。どちらの単語も通常、漠然とした方法で使用されているため、どの定義にも異論がありうるが、この2つには異なる反対の考えが含まれており、両者を区別する必要がある。「愛国心」とは、特定の場所および特定の生活様式への献身を意味する。それは、自らを世界最高だと信じるが、他者に無理強いすることは望まない。愛国心は、軍事的にも文化的にも防御的な性質を持つ。一方、ナショナリズムは権力の欲望と切り離せない。すべてのナショナリストの永続的な目的は、自分自身のためではなく、自身が個性を沈めることを選択した国や他の部隊のために、より多くの権力と名声を確保することである。

[1] Nations, and even vaguer entities such as the Catholic Church or the proleteriat, are commonly thought of as individuals and often referred to as ‘she’. Patently absurd remarks such as ‘Germany is naturally treacherous’ are to be found in any newspaper one opens, and reckless generalizations about national character (‘The Spaniard is a natural aristocrat’ or ‘Every Englishman is a hypocrite’) are uttered by almost everyone. Intermittently these generalizations are seen to be unfounded, but the habit of making them persists, and people of professedly international outlook, e.g. Tolstoy or Bernard Shaw, are often guilty of them.

[ George Orwell: "NOTES ON NATIONALISM" (Polemic, GB – London, 1945) via George Packer]
We live in a time of tribes. Not of ideologies, parties, groups, or beliefs—these don’t convey the same impregnability of political fortifications, or the yawning chasms between them. American politics today requires a word as primal as “tribe” to get at the blind allegiances and huge passions of partisan affiliation. Tribes demand loyalty, and in return they confer the security of belonging.
Everything in American politics today entrenches tribalism: our winner-take-all elections, the dehumanizing commentary on cable news and social media, the people we choose to talk to and live among. The trends are not new, but they’ve dramatically accelerated and intensified under a President who rules by humiliation because he lives in fear of being humiliated.


[ George Packer: "A New Report Offers Insights Into Tribalism in the Age of Trump" (2018/10/13) on NewYoker ]