Who's Who

古い地球の創造論を検証可能に見せかけるHugh Ross

古い地球の創造論の老舗Reasons To Believe(RTB)の主宰者Dr. Hugh Rossが、仰々しくも"A Testable Model Approach to End The Creation /Evolution Wars"(創造論・進化論戦争を終わらせる検証可能モデルアプローチ)と銘打って出版した"Creation as Science"という本。ここで、Dr. Hugh Rossは宇宙と地球と生命の時系列を提示した。その時系列は以下の通り[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, pp.69-70]:
  1. God, who exists outside space and time, caused the universe of matter, energy, space, and time to come into existence.
  2. God guided the expansion and cooling of the universe toward the formation of a suitable planetary home for humanity.
  3. God successively transformed Earth and the solar system through six major creative stages in preparation for human habitation. Throughout these creation periods God successively layered increasingly advanced plant and animal life to maximize support for humanity's global expansion and civilization.
  4. God created Adam, the first human, and place him in Eden. God taught Adam to care for this magnificent garden, then crated Eve to be his mate and helper.
  5. God allowed Lucifer, once the most beautiful and powerful of his angelic creatures and then the perpetrator of rebellion against God in the supernatural realm, to enter Eden. There, God permitted Lucifer to entice Adam and Eve toward autonomy and self-exaltation.
  6. Adam and Eve defied God's authority and thereby introduced sin (and the evil it produces) into the earthly environment.
  7. God banished Adam and Eve from Eden, removed their access to physical immortality (the tree of life), ad later shortened the life span of their descendants. These actions restrained the expression of evil and made way for redemption.
  8. God chose to communicate to humans -- thorough Abaraham and his progeny -- specific instruction and preparation for His plan to redeem humanity from their hopeless plight. This plan and God's promise to fulfill it gave humankind hope.
  9. God came to Earth as a human (Jesus Christ), resisted temptation to sin, and paid sin's death penalty on humanity's behalf. Motivated by love, Jesus endured death on a cross so that anyone, through faith, may receive justification before God, fellowship with Him, and the capacity to grow in godliness. This provision includes the promise of eternal life with God.
  10. Jesus Christ conquered death, proved His resurrection by appearing physically to hundreds of eyewitnesses, and then ascended into the transcendent realm (heaven) where He prepares the new creation for all who accept His provision.
  11. Jesus Christ commissioned His followers to spread the good news about His offer -- with gentleness, respect, and a clear conscience -- to every person on the planet.
  12. Jesus Christ will remove from His presence all who refuse His gift and reject God's authority.
  13. Jesus will escort His people into the new creation, where they will live forever face-to-face with Him. Once there, His people will fulfill new leadership roles in His service.

4番目以降を、"科学的に"どころか、歴史学的にも、証明できそうにない。実際、Dr. Hugh Rossもこの後のページで、4番目以降の項目を証明・検証などしない。Dr. Hugh Rossが検証対象とするのは、3番目までだ。

とはいえ、3番目までの主張もまた"科学的"に検証することは無理だ。自然法則で機械仕掛けの宇宙を記述する機械論で、自然法則を超越する存在を記述できるわけもない。そこをDr. Hugh Rossと仲間たちは何とかしようとする。

まず、Dr. Hugh Rossと仲間たちは、検証のキーとなる問い(Key Questions as Practical Tests )という項目で以下の9つを挙げた[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, pp.180]:
  1. How quickly and extensively does new research yield further evidence for (or against) the model?
  2. Are the adjustments to the model in response to new research findings becoming progressively smaller (or greater)?
  3. From how many disciplines and subdisciplines does evidence for the model arise?
  4. How many independent means of measurement in a particular discipline produce evidence for the model?
  5. Are the various measurements of evidence for the model providing increasingly consistent (or inconsistent) results as the measuring accuracy improves?
  6. Is the model becoming more detailed and comprehensive in its explanatory power as evidence accumulates?
  7. Does the accumulating evidence for the model yield more research questions/problems for researchers to explore?
  8. Does accumulating evidence eliminate some competing models and/or compel alteration of other models into forms more closely resembling the model under investigation?
  9. As research progresses, to what degree are the model's predictions (both short- and long-range) successful?


そして、Dr. Hugh Rossは"Testing Through Predictions"(予測を通した検証)を説明する:
The key to successful application of the nine test questions is the development of well-crafted predictions of what scientists should (in the scientific sense of the word) discover in future research. For predictions to be of any use in bringing resolutions to creation/evolution issues and debates, they must be detailed, distinctive, and comprehensive. The predictions ought not be so vague that the proponent of particular model runs no risk of being wrong.


[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, pp.180-181]

Dr. Hugh Rossと仲間たちの仕掛けは、この後にある:
Given limiation of this book, only the three most familiar Western models will be compared and contrasted with RTB's creation mode 本の紙面制約のため、3つのおなじみの西洋のモデルをRTBの創造論モデルと比較対照する):

Naturalistic evolution(自然主義的進化論)
Young-earth creationism models(若い地球の創造論)
Theistic evolution models(有神論的進化論)

[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, p.184]
3つ挙げられたモデルのうち、「宇宙も地球も6000歳で、生物は現在の姿で創造され、全地球な洪水であるノアの洪水が起きた」と主張する"若い地球の創造論"は、Dr. Hugh Rossによって再定義されたり、捻じ曲げられたりはしていない。形式的にはモデルとして成り立っている。しかし、自然主義的進化論すなわち普通の進化論の定義は、普通なものではない。Dr. Hugh Rossと仲間たちは次のように定義する:
the word "evolutionist" has generally been applied to someone who asserts that all the changes observed in the recored of nature (including te origin and history of the universe, Earth, and all life) can be attributed to strictly natural cause.


[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, p.21]

従って、Dr. Hugh Rossは普通の進化論ではなく、形而上学的自然主義という哲学を対抗モデルの例として挙げていることになる。

The RTB creation model predicts that disputes over the validity of the big bang will diminish as astronomers learn more about the origin and structure of the universe. The model anticipates that new evidences for a big bang creation event will emerge. That is, astronomers should find additional confirmation that the universe traces back to a beginning in finite time, that the universe began in an infinitely or near infinitely hot, dense state, that the universe has been continuously expanding since its beginning, and that the universe has been continuously cooling. What's more, new discoveries by astronomers will increasingly establish that the physics of the big bang creation event accounts for many, though not all, the design features of the universe that make life, human life in particular, possible.


Nontheistic naturalist models of the universe predict that new astronomical discoveries will increasingly establish that the universe does not have an actual beginning but that the universe in some respect will prove to be eternal and self-caused. Such models also predict that new astronomical discoveries will increasingly shake apart the current astronomical consensus that the physics of the big bang event must be exquisitely fine-tuned for life to be possible in the universe.


[Hugh Ross: Creation as Science, pp.185-186]

そして、Dr. Hugh Rossが"Nontheistic Evolution Model"と呼ぶ、実際には形而上学的自然主義という哲学は、将来の科学的発見について、Dr. Hugh Rossが言うような予測を立てるかもしれない。しかし、それは科学とは何の関係もない形而上学の問題である。

自然科学ではなく形而上学に巧妙に戦場をすりかえることに成功したかに見えるDr. Hugh Rossと仲間たち。しかし、このような形而上学の有効性を検証することが可能な予測は、科学の範疇では証明も反証もできない。