たとえば、Robert Muckle and Stacey L. Camp (2020)は、Aliens of the gaps詭弁、藁人形論法、False Dichotomy (誤った二元論)の派生などの詭弁を指摘する。
Pseudoarchaeology involves explanations of places, people, and things from the past using unusual, far-fetched, often bizarre, and extremely unlikely sce-narios. Although proponents of outlandish theories often purport to be following scientific methods and contextualize their explanations within archaeology, they are clearly not following the principles or meth-ods of science in general and archaeology in particu-lar, and usually demonstrate a poor understanding of the prehistoric and historic past.

Pseudoarchaeology is big business. One well-known pseudoarchaeologist, Erich von Daniken, has sold tens of millions of books, opened a theme park, and produced multiple documentaries, all purporting that many of the major features of the prehistoric past have been either created or facilitated by visits to Earth by extraterrestrial aliens. Pseudoarchaeology persists in mainstream media, in print, online, in movies, on video, and on a multitude of televi-sion programs. including documentaries and reality programming.

Pseudoarchaeologists often make fantastic claims, including, but certainly not limited to, that the lines on the Nazca desert in Peru are in fact landing strips for alien spacecraft that the Egyptian pyramids were built with knowledge obtained from extraterrestrials; that the statues of Rapa Nui were created to relieve boredom by stranded extrater-restrials awaiting rescue; and that Mayan art depicts ancient astronauts.

One of the most common ploys of pseudoarchaeologists. especially those claiming to be following the scientific method, is to frame possible explanations as a series of several hypotheses. They then proceed to rule out all the hypotheses but the last one, which invariably is the most fantastic, bizarre, and outland-ish of all, often invoking extraterrestrials and occa-sionally conspiracies by mainstream archaeologists to keep things quiet. This is far from acceptable science. A basic rule of science is that one should never accept a hypothesis by merely ruling out the others. And this is what pseudoarchaeologists do, almost every time.




疑似考古学者、特に科学的手法に従っていると主張する人たちの最も一般的な策略の 1 つは、考えられる説明を一連の複数の仮説として組み立てることである。その後、彼らは最後の仮説を除くすべての仮説を否定する。最後の仮説は必ず最も空想的で奇妙で突飛なもので、しばしば宇宙生命体や、時には主流の考古学者による陰謀を持ち出して物事を黙らせる。これは受け入れられる科学とは程遠い。科学の基本的なルールは、他の仮説を単に除外するだけで仮説を受け入れてはいけない。そして、疑似考古学者はほぼ毎回これを行っている。

[ Robert Muckle, Stacey L. Camp: "Introducing Archaeology, Third Edition", University of Toronto Press, 2020, p.223 ]

Brian M. Fagan and Nadia Durrani (2016) ]は、「疑似考古学は、冒険家・カルト・ピラミッド・大量の黄金・謎の文明などの魅力的要素を組み合わせて、独創的で魅力的だが、何の証拠もない話をつくりあげ、流行を狙う。それを信じる人々は、疑似考古学を否定するような発言は、すべて否定して、信じ続ける」点を挙げる:
Then there is pseudoarchaeology, which is not archaeology at all. Take a few intrepid adventurers in an ancient sailing vessel, some startlingly new religious cult, a handful of pyramids, lots of gold, and exotic civilizations swirling in ever-parting mists and you have the irresistible ingredients for an epic "archaeological" tale. Pseudoarchaeology is all the rage in a world where many people are fascinated by adventure, escapism, and space fiction. A distinctive literary genre tells compelling tales of a long-lost past. For instance, British journalist Graham Hancock has claimed that a great civilization flour-ished under Antarctic ice 12,000 years ago. (Of course, its magnificent cities are buried under deep ice sheets, so we cannot excavate them!) Colonists supposedly spread to all parts of the world from this Antarctic home, colonizing such well-known sites as Tiwanaku in the Bolivian highlands and building the Sphinx by the banks of the Nile. Hancock weaves an ingenious story by piecing together all manner of controversial geological observations and isolated archaeological finds. He waves aside the obvious archaeologist's reaction, which asks where traces of these ancient colonies and civiliza-tions are to be found. Hancock fervently believes in his far-fetched theory, and, being a good popular writer, he has managed to piece together a best-selling book, which reads like a "whodunit" written by an amateur sleuth.

Pseudoarchaeology appeals to people who are impatient with the deliberate pace of science and who like to believe that "there is always a faint possibility that ..." Some of these "cult archaeologies" show all the signs of becoming personality cults, even reli-gious movements. The theories espoused by the leaders become articles of faith, the object of personal conversion. They are attempts to give meaning to being human and are often steeped in symbolism and religious activity. Almost invariably the cultists dis-miss archaeologists as "elitists" or "scientific fuddy-duddies" because they reject wild theories that are unsupported by scientifically gathered evidence.

そして、疑似考古学がある。これは考古学ではない。古代の帆船に乗った数人の勇敢な冒険家、驚くほど新しい宗教カルト、一握りのピラミッド、大量の金、そして絶えず分かれる霧の中に渦巻く異国の文明。これらを組み合わせれば、壮大な「考古学」物語の魅力的な要素が揃う。疑似考古学は、冒険、現実逃避、宇宙フィクションに魅了される多くの人々がいる世界で大流行している。独特の文学ジャンルが、はるか昔に失われた過去の魅力的な物語を語る。たとえば、英国のジャーナリスト、グラハム・ハンコックは、12,000年前に南極の氷の下で偉大な文明が栄えたと主張している。 (もちろん、その壮大な都市は深い氷床の下に埋もれているので、発掘することはできない!) 入植者はこの南極の故郷から世界中に広がり、ボリビア高原のティワナクなどの有名な遺跡を植民地化し、ナイル川のほとりにスフィンクスを建造したと言われている。ハンコックは、あらゆる種類の物議を醸す地質学的観察と孤立した考古学的発見をつなぎ合わせて独創的な物語を作り上げている。彼は、これらの古代の植民地と文明の痕跡がどこにあるのかを問う考古学者の明らかな反応を無視している。ハンコックは自分の突飛な理論を熱心に信じており、優れた人気作家として、アマチュア探偵が書いた「ミステリー」のように読めるベストセラー本をまとめ上げた。


[ Brian M. Fagan, Nadia Durrani: "Archaeology -- A Brief Introduction", Taylor & Francis, 2016, p.45 ]

Amateur archaeology, also known as avocational archaeology, is an umbrella phrase for the work being done by people without educational credentials in the field, and who do not receive direct income for their work on archaeological projects (although they may receive income from books they write or artifacts they sell). The primary kinds of amateurs are those who volunteer or pay a stipend to work on academic archaeology projects, usually under the guidance of an academic archaeologist, and looters, sometimes known as pothunters, who essentially dig up sites to find and sell objects of value. Amateur archaeology also includes people with little or no training in archaeological method and theory who nevertheless theorize and sometimes write popular books explaining the origins of famous heritage sites. Many of the people who fall into this category either have little knowledge or choose to ignore the fundamen-tal principles, methods, and research findings of academic archaeology. Their work is often termed pseudoarchaeology.


[ Robert J. Muckle: "Introducing Archaeology, Second Edition", University of Toronto Press, 2014, p.233 ]






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