Four large studies among U.S. adults found consistent evidence that conservatives are more likely than liberals to endorse conspiracy thinking. This effect was explained by a distrust in officials and paranoid tendencies. ... Study authors Sander van der Linden and colleagues aimed to explore this idea within the American political landscape.

“The fact that “conspiracy theories are not just for conservatives” (Moore et al., 2014) does not mean that conspiracies are endorsed at the same scale or level of intensity by liberals and conservatives nor that conspiracy theories on the left and right are equally harmful, fallacious, or driven by paranoid ideation,” van der Linden and team say.

米国の成人を対象とした4つの大規模な研究で、保守がリベラルよりも陰謀論を支持する可能性が高いという一貫した証拠を見出した。この影響は、当局者への不信と妄想的な傾向によって説明された。 ... 研究論文の著者であるSandervan der Lindenらは、アメリカの政治情勢の中でこの考えを探求することを目的としていた。

「『陰謀論は保守に限られたものではない』という事実(Moore et al。、2014)は、『陰謀論がリベラルと保守によって同規模あるいは同程度の強さで支持されている』とか、『左翼と右翼の陰謀論が同程度に有害で、誤まっていたり、パラノイド思考による』といったことを意味するものではない」とvan der Lindenと研究チームは述べた。

[ Beth Ellwood: "Conservatives’ propensity toward conspiracy thinking can be explained by a distrust in officials and paranoid thinking" (2020/11/05) ]

Linden et al (2020) は、気候変動陰謀論及び一般的な陰謀論の広がりについて全米で4つの大規模な調査を行った。
Four large, national surveys explored the prevalence of a general conspiracy mindset and specific belief in conspiracies about climate change among American adults. The surveys also included measures of distrust in officials and paranoid thinking.

All four studies found consistent and compelling evidence that conservatives were more likely than liberals to endorse a general conspiracy mentality and belief in a global warming conspiracy. This was true even in two studies that included a variety of assessments for political ideology, in addition to participants’ self-disclosed ideology. In other words, no matter how it was measured, conservatism was associated with increased belief in conspiracies.

Further, all four studies found that conservatives were more likely to show distrust in officials (e.g., scientists, government, traditional news and media) than liberals. Moreover, distrust in officials and paranoid ideation mediated the relationship between conservatism and conspiracy belief.



[ Beth Ellwood: "Conservatives’ propensity toward conspiracy thinking can be explained by a distrust in officials and paranoid thinking" (2020/11/05) ]

Van der Linden and colleagues found little evidence to suggest that conspiracy thinking was equally prevalent among liberals and conservatives.

“Extreme liberals were not as likely as extreme conservatives to adopt a conspiratorial mindset, although it is possible that extreme liberals would be more motivated than moderate liberals to embrace some conspiracy theories . . . Importantly, this pattern of ideological asymmetry applied to conspiratorial thinking in general as well as belief in an ideologically congenial conspiracy theory, namely, the conspiracy theory that global warming is a hoax,” the researchers share.

Van der Linden et al(2020)は、陰謀論がリベラルと保守で同程度に広まっていることを示唆する証拠をほとんど見いだせなかった。

「極端なリベラルは、極端な保守ほど陰謀的な考え方を採用する可能性はなかった。しかし、極端なリベラルは、穏健なリベラルよりも陰謀論を受け入れる意欲が高い可能性がある。... 重要なのは、このイデオロギーの非対称性のパターンは、一般的な陰謀的思考についても、イデオロギー的に保守と相性の良い陰謀論、つまり地球温暖化はデマであるという陰謀論の信念にも適用された」と研究者たちは述べt。

[ Beth Ellwood: "Conservatives’ propensity toward conspiracy thinking can be explained by a distrust in officials and paranoid thinking" (2020/11/05) ]

証拠を重視すること vs 真理は政治的なもの

「証拠によって裏付けられている主張」と「単にもっともらしく政治的に都合の良い主張」を区別できなくなる要因を調べるOhio State UniversityのコミュニケーションのR. Kelly Garret准教授による研究がある。
The study examined the link between conspiracy theories and three different three epistemic beliefs, which the researchers called “faith in intuition”, “need for evidence”, and “truth is political”. The first refers to people who trust their “gut feelings.” Need for evidence refers to the belief that you need to examine the available evidence. Truth is political refers to people who claim that knowledge is both subjective and politically determined.

The researchers found that individuals who trusted their intuition or believed truth was political were more likely to believe in conspiracy theories. People who agreed with statements such as “I can usually feel when a claim is true” or “facts are dictated by those in power” were more likely to believe that the Apollo moon landing was fake or that the U.S. government knowingly allowed the 9/11 terrorist attacks to occur.

Those who believed in the need to check for external evidence, on the other hand, were less likely to embrace conspiracy theories. They were also more likely to correctly answer questions about scientific and political facts, such as climate change and the lack of WMDs in Iraq before the U.S. invasion.




[ Eric W. Dolan: "Beliefs about the nature of knowledge are linked to inclinations for conspiracy theories, study finds" (2017/10/03) ]

“There’s a note of optimism in our findings that I hope people will remember,” Garrett told PsyPost. “Our research suggests that everyone benefits from attending to the evidence. So often, researchers studying misperceptions find that factors we’d hoped would promote accuracy end up promoting bias.”

“For instance, being more knowledgeable about science is associated with having more biased beliefs about climate change,” he noted. “Here, though, we find uniform benefits: liberals and conservatives alike were more accurate when they put more stock in the evidence.”


[ Eric W. Dolan: "Beliefs about the nature of knowledge are linked to inclinations for conspiracy theories, study finds" (2017/10/03) ]