・・・the Assad regime has used chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin, on a small scale against the opposition multiple times in the last year,・・・
 100 to 150 people have died from detected chemical weapons attacks in Syria to date・・・
 The president has made a decision about providing more support for the opposition and will be providing further support to the SMC (Supreme Military Council) and that includes providing military support.・・・
 We have not made any decision about a no-fly zone・・・
 We believe that the Assad regime maintains control of these weapons, and has taken steps to secure these weapons from theft or attack,・・・We have no reliable, corroborated reported to indication that the opposition has acquired or used chemical weapons.・・・


 CIA operatives and U.S. special operations troops have been secretly training Syrian rebels with anti-tank and antiaircraft weapons since late last year, months before President Obama approved plans to begin directly arming them・・・
 U.S. special operations teams selected the trainees over the last year when the U.S. military set up regional supply lines to provide the rebels with nonlethal assistance, including uniforms, radios and medical aid.・・・
 CIA officials declined to comment on the secret training programs, which was being done covertly in part because of U.S. legal concerns about publicly arming the rebels, which would constitute an act of war against the Assad government.・・・
 The training, conducted by American, Jordanian and French operatives, involves rockets and anti-tank and antiaircraft weaponry・・・


 As many as 6,000 foreign fighters from nearly 50 nations have now joined the brutal 2.5year civil war to unseat President Bashar Assad of Syria. ・・・
 Surprising estimates suggest that Australians now make up the largest contingent from any developed nation in the Syrian rebel forces. There are around 120 French fighters in Syria, about 100 Britons and a handful of Americans — but there are at least 200 Australians, ・・・
 The French, British and American rebel fighters are drawn from communities that number 4.7 million, 2.7 million and 2.6 million respectively. The Australian contingent is drawn from a Muslim population of just 500,000・・・
 1 in 9 Westerners who fight in foreign jihadist insurgencies ends up becoming involved in terrorist plots back home.・・・


 Hundreds of people are believed to have been killed in an apparent gas attack on rebel-held parts of eastern Damascus that is thought to be the most significant use of chemical weapons since thousands of Kurds were gassed by Saddam Hussein in Halabja 25 years ago.
 Medics, as well as opposition fighters and political leaders, said the death toll had reached 1,400 and was likely to rise further with hundreds more critically wounded in districts besieged by the Syrian military. Other estimates put the current death toll at between 200 and 500. None of the figures could be independently verified.・・・
 The United States should be using its own resources to determine, as quickly as possible, whether the opposition’s reports of large-scale use of gas against civilians are accurate. If they are, Mr. Obama should deliver on his vow not to tolerate such crimes -- by ordering direct U.S. retaliation against the Syrian military forces responsible and by adopting a plan to protect civilians in southern Syria with a no-fly zone.


 ・・・Through a half-century of cold war, we repeatedly faced precisely the same dilemma: choosing the lesser evil between totalitarian (in that case, communist) and authoritarian (usually military) rule.
 We generally supported the various militaries in suppressing the communists. ・・・
 The authoritarian regimes we supported -- in South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Chile, Brazil, even Spain and Portugal (ruled by fascists until the mid-1970s!) -- in time yielded democratic outcomes. Gen. Augusto Pinochet, after 16 years of iron rule, yielded to U.S. pressure and allowed a free election ― which he lost, ushering in Chile’s current era of democratic flourishing. How many times have communists or Islamists allowed that to happen?
 Regarding Egypt, rather than emoting, we should be thinking: what’s best for Egypt, for us and for the possibility of some eventual democratic future.
 Under the Brotherhood, such a possibility is zero. Under the generals, slim.
 Slim trumps zero.

 The new, more aggressive foreign policy posture that the French government adopted in the later months of Nicolas Sarkozy’s presidency seems to be permanent. Following on the 2011 peacekeeping operation in the Ivory Coast and Sarkozy’s championing of the international intervention in Libya later that year, Francois Hollande’s government launched a military intervention in Mali--which involved 4,000 troops at its peak. Even before the operation Mali, France had almost 5,000 troops stationed abroad at posting including Afghanistan, Chad, Lebanon, and Ivory Coast. At least 1,000 troops will remain in Mali.
 The French government has also emerged as the most forceful voice pushing for intervention in Syria.・・・
 What’s interesting about French foreign policy is that at the same time its posture is becoming more hawkish, it’s scaling back on its military capabilities.・・・
 A six-year budget adopted this month reduces the total military and defense staff from 324,000 to 242,000. That will include a cut of 10,000 operational troops. Spending will be held at current levels for the next three years.・・・


 ・・・We can avert our eyes when "suspected" chemical attacks take place. Can we still avert our eyes if they are proved to have taken place? The answer may still be yes, but let's explain to those caught in the Syrian nightmare why that is so.
 ・・・By tying down Mr. Assad’s army and its Iranian and Hezbollah allies in a war against Al Qaeda-aligned extremist fighters, four of Washington’s enemies will be engaged in war among themselves and prevented from attacking Americans or America’s allies.・・・
 Maintaining a stalemate should be America’s objective. And the only possible method for achieving this is to arm the rebels when it seems that Mr. Assad’s forces are ascendant and to stop supplying the rebels if they actually seem to be winning.・・・






 ・・・The foreign secretary, William Hague, said it was "clear it was the Assad regime" that had carried out the attack.・・・
 Activists and residents in the three areas targeted by the attack have gathered the remnants of numerous distinctively shaped rockets which are believed to have contained the neurotoxins.
 Many of the rockets are relatively intact, though their noses were buried deep in soil or bitumen, suggesting that they dispersed the chemicals above ground and did not explode on impact.・・・
 Hamish de Bretton-Gordon, a former commanding officer at the UK's Joint Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regiment・・・said the large amount of nerve gas dropped and the tactics used pointed to Bashar al-Assad's regime being responsible.・・・
 "This appears to have been a very well-planned operation, from the conventional bombardment before to break all the doors and windows to allow the gas to move freely, to the use of 20 or so rockets [to deliver the gas] and then the army following up. It is a textbook operation."・・・
 Intervention could be justified legally on humanitarian grounds or under international law relating to chemical weapons.・・・
 Nato members could act against Syria without UN mandate・・・
 ・・・If strikes were ordered, they would not be against chemical facilities as they are too mobile and present a risk of widespread contamination. Air defences would be hit first, perhaps initially those close to the Turkish border, as a  warning shot. Long-range weapons would be used to avoid western casualties.
 "If that doesn't work they will start hammering away at the wider Syrian air defences," said Heyman. "That won't be as easy as Libya, but Nato aircraft would be able to take them out in seven days, I believe."・・・



 ・・・In 1988, during the waning days of Iraq's war with Iran, the United States learned through satellite imagery that Iran was about to gain a major strategic advantage by exploiting a hole in Iraqi defenses. U.S. intelligence officials conveyed the location of the Iranian troops to Iraq, fully aware that Hussein's military would attack with chemical weapons, including sarin, a lethal nerve agent. ・・・
 In contrast to today's wrenching debate over whether the United States should intervene to stop alleged chemical weapons attacks by the Syrian government, the United States applied a cold calculus three decades ago to Hussein's widespread use of chemical weapons against his enemies and his own people. The Reagan administration decided that it was better to let the attacks continue if they might turn the tide of the war. ・・・











≫ 時には戦争をしなきゃならないってことを理解して欲しいね。≪(コラム#6412。太田)




 Not content to slowly exterminate his opposition and continue the massive depopulation of his country, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad apparently felt compelled to launch a blatant chemical weapons attack in a Damascus suburb that killed hundreds, if not thousands. ・・・
 ・・・like former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic, former Liberian President Charles Taylor, and former Libyan President Muammar al-Qaddafi -- got so used to poking the great slumbering bear that is the United States and the international community without any response that he assumed he had absolute impunity to do whatever he pleased on the ground. ・・・
 Assad's great miscalculation is in not realizing that at some point the costs of inaction simply outweigh the cost of action for Washington and its allies. It does not serve the United States, the European Union, or anyone else well to be seen as feckless in the face of such horrors. It undermines the legitimacy of the international order and makes it more likely that other despots will employ similar tactics. ・・・
 ・・・The use of chemical weapons is unlawful in international law. But so is a military attack in response unless authorized by the United Nations Security Council.・・・

 ・・・Better a liberalizing dictator than an elected thug.・・・
 Jim Crow was supported by the majority; Eastern European pogroms were justified by the majority; Adolf Hitler was supported by the majority; Josef Stalin was revered by the majority. ・・・
 Hamas was democratically elected in the Gaza Strip・・・
 The military dictatorships of Taiwan and South Korea gradually evolving into constitutional democracies as a consequence of integrating into the global economic order are good historical examples.・・・
 ・・・which faction would most likely be more rational and maintain the peace with Israel? ・・・


 ・・・Three months ago, the UN Syria human rights commission member・・・said there were "strong concrete suspicions" that rebel fighters had used the nerve gas sarin, and Turkish security forces were reported soon afterwards to have seized sarin from al-Qaida-linked al-Nusra Front units heading into Syria.
 ・・・rebel responsibility "can't be ruled out", even if the "balance of probability" points to the regime or a rogue military commander. ・・・
 The Syrian atrocity, where the death toll has been reported by opposition-linked sources at 322 but is likely to rise, was damned as a "moral obscenity" by US secretary of state John Kerry. The killings in Egypt, the vast majority of them of civilians, have been estimated at 1,295 over two days. But Barack Obama said the US wasn't "taking sides", while Kerry earlier claimed the army was "restoring democracy".・・・
 ・・・The Russians and Chinese have said they want “fair and professional inspections” in Syria. The Iranians have also agreed. In this matter they have a serious interest; the Iranians have suffered most in the world from the use of chemical weapons in their war with Iraq during Saddam [Hussein]’s time.
 They are not condoning the use of chemical weapons by their friends in Damascus.
 In my view, it is certainly a possibility that you can achieve world condemnation of Syria in the Security Council -- including from Russia, China, and Iran – if inspections prove the suspicions.・・・
 China and Russia will not accept military action. That is true. But・・・ attacking stockpiles with cruise missiles, as I understand it, has the disadvantage that is might spread chemical weapons in the vicinity of any attack.・・・
 ・・・the most likely, though by no means perfect, historic parallel is the 1999 NATO air campaign in Kosovo. Then, as now, civilians were involved in atrocities perpetrated by the government in power. Russia had ties, too, to Slobodan Milosevic’s regime, so President Clinton was unable to secure a UN resolution. Instead, he used NATO backing as endorsement for US air strikes.・・・
 ・・・the legality of the Kosovo action was and remains acutely controversial, too -- domestically, because the president acted alone, without a self-evident basis for doing so and without announcing his legal rationale publicly,・・・and internationally, because (again) the Security Council did not sign off and no self-defense claim was implicated there, either. So Clinton’s actions were certainly controversial legally, then as now.・・・



 ・・・There were signs Wednesday that the Syrian strongman has already begun reacting to the talk coming out of Washington about the potential targets of a U.S. strike. Reuters reported that Assad's forces appeared to have evacuated most of their personnel from several key army, air force, and security headquarters buildings in central Damascus. Those are precisely the kinds of military compounds U.S. cruise missiles would reportedly be sent to destroy. ・・・
 ・・・It is not realistic to put legal constraints on war powers. Law works through general prospective rules that apply to a range of factual situations. International relations and national security are too fluid and unpredictable to be governed by a set of legal propositions that command general assent secured in advance. Laws governing war make us feel more secure but they don’t actually make us more secure. So while it is satisfying to fling the charge of hypocrisy at the president and his lawyers, and we might disagree about the wisdom of an attack on Syria, let’s just hope that when they invoke the law, they don’t actually believe what they are saying.



 「英、シリア軍事介入を断念 政府提出動議を議会が否決…」


 ・・・Defence Secretary Philip Hammond・・・said he and the prime minister were "disappointed" with the result of the Commons vote which he said would harm Britain's relationship with Washington.
 "It's certainly going to place some strain on the special relationship. ・・・
 No 10 curses, but Britain's illusion of empire is over・・・
 The party of Suez no longer, the same impulse that makes them anti-EU has them prize British self-interest more than global status.・・・

・・・France, which earlier this week declared its support for taking action against Syria, is now calling for more time so UN inspections can be completed. ・・・
 The Arab League has blamed Syria for the chemical attack, but stopped short of advocating punitive strikes by the US.
 In recent days, Obama has spoken personally with leaders of France, Australia, Canada and Germany.・・・


 ・・・The strikes, involving dozens of cruise missiles launched from U.S. warships, attack submarines and possibly warplanes, would probably last up to three days. ・・・
 Along with units suspected of involvement in chemical attacks, the strikes are expected to target artillery units that can fire munitions carrying chemical agents or conventional explosives, as well command facilities and bunkers・・・
 Four U.S. guided-missile destroyers — the Ramage, the Gravely, the Barry and the Mahan — are now in the eastern Mediterranean, each carrying up to 90 cruise missiles. In practice,・・・most are probably carrying about 45 missiles. They carry a relatively small, 1,000-pound warhead.
 Nuclear-powered attack submarines that can also fire Tomahawks are likely to be in the Mediterranean as well. Some submarines carry only a dozen cruise missiles, but some specially configured Ohio class subs carry up to 154 of those.
 Even without an Ohio class submarine within range of Syria, the Navy could fire about 200 missiles.・・・
 We'd support a larger military intervention aimed at regime change. Short of that, any U.S. military strike should focus on doing enough damage to the Syrian air force so the rebels can change the regime themselves.
 ・・・The strikes・・・ will be directed against political and military leadership targets, as well as the means by which Assad's forces can deliver chemical weapons again,・・・including rocket sites and air bases for Russian-supplied helicopters and jets that serve as delivery systems for chemical weapons.・・・
 ・・・It looks likely we'll go after air defence radars, air force bases and aircraft, ground force units,・・・<a>nd there would be some targets・・・that include military command and control facilities.・・・
 The US is also likely to strike Syrian air defenses and airfields that Russia and Iran use to resupply Assad・・・





≫英米の上述の法理論が、シリアへの軍事介入を警察権の行使ととらえているのか、それとも一般住民(ないし反体制派)のための集団的自衛権の行使 ととらえているのか、判然としないが、軍事施設への攻撃であることから、前者ととらえるのは困難と考えられ、やはり後者ととらえるべきだろう。≪(コラム#6412。太田)


 More useful may be the principle of collective self-defence. If the Syrian regime can use chemical weapons on its own people then it might deploy them against its neighbour Turkey. That might justify a right of collective self-defence by Nato in the face of a threat to one of its members, under article five of the North Atlantic treaty. There would have to be legitimate concerns by Turkey, or other Nato members, that the use of chemical weapons posed an imminent threat justifying the use of force in self-defence.
 Opponents of military action argue that a Nato-led attack on Syria would itself provoke retaliation against Turkey. But perhaps that is not the sort of retrospective legal justification the west is lookingfor.
 So the strongest legal argument in favour of military strikes appears to be humanitarian intervention.・・・

 安保理決議が無くても、1998年に労働党が述べた3条件(毎日新聞参照)が満たされていれば、限定的な軍事力行使は国際法に照らして合法であろう(a limited use of force ・・・ would be lawful under international law)、というSir Daniel Bethlehem(王室顧問弁護士で、2006〜2011年に外務省で主席法律顧問をしていた。)による説明が、このコラムの結論のようです。



 ・・・Another justification for intervention in the case of Syria would be a request from rebel forces. At the end of last year, the UK government recognised the National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces as the "sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people". But that option, by itself, does not seem very promising.・・・






 ・・・Among the surprises in the report was the U.S. estimate for the dead and wounded. The new figure, 1,429, was about four times higher than a British casualty estimate released Thursday.・・・
 ・・・the report links the Assad government to “multiple” chemical weapons attacks in the past year, including a small-scale attack in the same part of the Damascus area that was struck Aug. 21.・・・
 ・・・Turkey, which had earlier expressed a willingness to intervene in Syria without UN approval, has been conspicuously silent in recent days as the prospect of a U.S.-led strike has drawn closer.
 France has been the lone exception. On Friday, French President Francois Hollande told Le Monde that the chemical weapons attack outside Damascus "must not go unpunished" and that France was "prepared to punish" Assad for the strike. ・・・ 
 ・・・the last time the U.S. entered a conflict with France on its side but not the British was in 1778, during a war against the U.K. A Syria campaign・・・
 ・・・it was the first time since 1782 that the House of Commons went against the government on a question of war. In that instance, lawmakers voted against continuing the war in the colonies across the Atlantic, which King George III and the prime minister of the day wanted to keep fighting. The vote led to the end of the American Revolution.・・・
 ・・・The precise role France would take remained unclear. Although it has land-based cruise missiles, it has no sea-launch capability. ・・・








 Obama has assembled a small coalition of foreign allies who have said they’ll join in an attack, including France, Australia, and—most important—Turkey.・・・

 ・・・they [the Americans] knew about the attack three days before it took place and did nothing・・・
  Kerry proclaimed that precisely 1,429 were killed in the Aug 21 attack. That figure, according to Cordesman, was "far too precise. It came from one [non-governmental organization], and is simply not credible. And, to make things worse, it disagreed with the British estimate." (It put the death toll around 350.) ・・・

 ・・・Could bombing Syria kill more civilians than it saves?・・・
 The first is that our bombs will kill people. ・・・
 The second — and probably larger — worry is that our bombs will lead the Syrian government to kill more people. That’s the implication of this 2012 paper・・・.
 The authors looked at a range of conflicts from 1989 to 2005 and found that when outside governments intervene on behalf of rebel forces, the government’s killing of civilians increased by 40 percent. The reason, basically, is that as the government fears it’s losing control of the conflict, it becomes more desperate and more ferocious and more lethal. ・・・

 Go Big or Stay Home・・・
 ・・・In the end, a healthy debate might find that a middle ground -- a strike that hits only a few targets and is of limited duration -- may be the worst of all options. To make a difference in the long-term, the United States needs to do more, particularly with the opposition. And if it won't do more, then staying out altogether may be the best option.
 ・・・ any U.S. action should be part of a larger, comprehensive strategy coordinated with our allies that has the ultimate goal of destroying Assad's military capability while simultaneously empowering the moderate opposition with robust support, including providing them with anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon systems.・・・
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014241278873244... 前掲

 ・・・Obama can’t rely on a united Democratic Party and would have to pick off lots of hawkish Republicans (whose ranks are reduced in today’s GOP).・・・
 ・・・ as it was in the 1990′s, you have Democratic doves aligning with isolationist Libertarians. They face off against Republican Hawks and Democratic bleeding hearts. ・・・


 ・・・unlike the U.S., France has no ship-based missiles; those won’t arrive until next year. So any action from France would come from the air, in the form of long-range Scalp missiles, similar to those the nation used in Kosovo in 1999, and in Libya in 2011. The biggest risk to French forces is Syria’s crack Russian-made air-defense systems, which could be capable of shooting down aircraft.・・・
  While the French parliament has scheduled an emergency meeting on Syria on Wednesday, Hollande is unlikely to seek its approval before joining a U.S.-led mission.
 In fact, analysts believe Hollande cares less about public opinion about Syria, than his own miserable ratings, which hover around 20%. Despite widespread opposition to bombing Syria, some believe it could nonetheless help Hollande, as it would present him as being in close alliance with Obama in a crucial international conflict. ・・・




 「シリア化学兵器は「サリン」 ケリー米国務長官明かす…」
 「シリア化学兵器疑惑「分析に最長3週間」 国連調査団…」


 ・・・Article 2 (1) of the Charter stipulates that the organization is “based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.”
 This amounts to a guarantee that the vital national interests of member states take precedence over international law and organization・・・
 The limitations on the power of Security Council are only emphasized by Article 51, which explicitly authorizes the use of force in self-defense, which under existing international legal doctrine includes measures taken to protect the vital security interests of member states. ・・・



 President Obama’s decision to seek congressional approval for a military strike on Syria could open the door to another vote by the British Parliament, which rejected such intervention, senior officials here suggested Sunday.・・・

  The Arab League on Sunday urged international action against the Syrian government to deter what it called the “ugly crime” of using chemical weapons. It was a major step toward supporting Western military strikes but short of the explicit endorsement that the United States and some Persian Gulf allies had hoped for. ・・・
 After Egypt signed on to the final resolution, many analysts pointed to the growing regional influence of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, which have extended Egypt billions of dollars in critical financial support since Mr. Morsi’s ouster, giving them the upper hand in the behind-the-scenes talks that crafted the resolution. But the Egyptians may have felt they could support the resolution because it made no reference to military force.




・・・we must recognize that the 21st-century wars against terror are still fundamentally wars, so far as the rule of law. These wars will be waged in three domains: the campaigns against global, networked terrorists like al Qaeda and their associated allies; the attempt to prevent, and where that is not possible, to mitigate the effects of civilian catastrophes, including genocide, ethnic cleansing, and the mass killing of citizens by their own states; and the struggle to preclude the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction for the purpose of compellance rather than deterrence. President Obama recognized these three arenas when he referred on Saturday to the implications of this crisis for "governments who would choose to build nuclear arms ... terrorists who would spread biological weapons ... armies who carry out genocide."
 In Syria, all three of these arenas are in play.・・・

 ・・・ In actual fact, though, the rebels are slowly but surely reducing the amount of territory controlled by the regime.
 Nevertheless, the myth of a military turning point in the regime's favor has persisted since June. This has also hampered the search for motives for the poison gas attack: Many observers wondered why Assad should use chemical weapons if he is winning the war already. In actual fact, the situation has been difficult for the regime's troops for quite some time now. Since the spring of 2012, many of the army's positions have only been supplied from the air because all land routes are under the control the rebels.
 Northeast of Damascus, Assad now only has control of a dwindling island of territory -- and to keep hold of it, the military needs the airports.・・・
 the regime has full control of only seven or eight airports throughout the country.・・・


 ・・・Obama has long spoken of the US desire to see Assad step down, but this is the first time he has linked that policy objective to his threatened military strikes against Syria. It follows pressure on Monday, from senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham, to make such a goal more explicit.・・・

 US senators in a key committee have agreed on a draft resolution backing the use of US military force in Syria.
 The measure to be voted on next week sets a time limit of 60 days on any operation. The draft document also bans the use of any ground forces in Syria.・・・
 The resolution states that "the president may extend" a 60-day operation "for a single period of 30 days" if he obtains further specific Congressional approval.・・・

 ・・・the BND(ドイツの諜報機関) intercepted a telephone call in which a doctor precisely described several of the symptoms patients suffered from -- and they were all consistent with exposure to sarin. ・・・
 ・・・the BND listened in on a conversation between a high-ranking member of the Lebanese militia Hezbollah, which supports Assad and provides his regime with military assistance, and the Iranian Embassy. The Hezbollah functionary, Schindler reported, seems to have admitted that poison gas was used. ・・・
 The German warship Sachsen is currently in the Mediterranean and is prepared to evacuate Germans and other foreigners from Lebanon should the need arise. ・・・
 ・・・a German ship outfitted with highly sensitive surveillance equipment is currently stationed off the coast of Syria.・・・

In April, when the first reports about possible chemical weapons attacks in Syria came out, the Pew Research Center asked 1,003 people whether they would "favor military action against Syria if use of chemical weapons by Syria was confirmed." By a 14-point margin, a plurality of respondents said they would―45 percent yes, 31 percent no. Support was driven in part by Republicans, 56 percent of whom favored a strike on Syria.
 Last week, as the Obama administration started issuing condemnations of Syria's chemical weapons use and bringing in members of Congress for briefings, Pew went back into the field and asked whether people favored "U.S. airstrikes against Syria." The story's changed entirely―by a 48-29 margin, respondents oppose the airstrikes. That's a 33-point swing against intervention. The highest level of support continues to come from Republicans, but that's fallen to 35 percent.・・・
 Since April, Americans have seen Egypt turn on its revolutionary government and let the military reinstall itself as—they say!—a transitionary junta. Maybe that's had a role in this・・・


・・・In the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 and in the United Nations Charter of 1945,・・・<s>tates were forbidden to enforce the law on their own and had to work through a system of collective security. ・・・
For all their wisdom, the United Nations’ founders showed incredible lack of foresight in freezing in place a system in which five nations hold permanent veto power in the Security Council. Unfortunately, that’s unlikely to change, despite almost uniform consensus that the configuration makes little sense. The question is whether we can manage to live with these shortcomings. If not, we have to think very hard about what the alternative might be ― and recognize that it could be far, far worse.
The question Congress and Mr. Obama must ask now is whether employing force to punish Mr. Assad’s use of chemical weapons is worth endangering the fragile international order that is World War II’s most significant legacy.


 ・・・For the first time, the administration is talking about using American and French aircraft to conduct strikes on specific targets, in addition to ship-launched Tomahawk cruise missiles. There is a renewed push to get other NATO forces involved.
 The strikes would be aimed not at the chemical stockpiles themselves -- risking a potential catastrophe -- but rather the military units that have stored and prepared the chemical weapons and carried the attacks against Syrian rebels, as well as the headquarters overseeing the effort, and the rockets and artillery that have launched the attacks, military officials said Thursday.
 Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has said that other targets would include equipment that Syria uses to protect the chemicals — air defenses, long-range missiles and rockets, which can also deliver the weapons. ・・・

 Syrian rebel forces say they are planning a nationwide offensive in conjunction with anticipated U.S. strikes against the forces of President Bashar Assad・・・

 The Syria resolution passed by a Senate committee this week rules out ground troops for 'combat operations.' But in the end, a Syria strike could require ground troops for other reasons.・・・
 Without being “combat” forces, US troops could still be brought in for peacekeeping, search and rescue, and to secure chemical weapons plants should the need arise, ・・・

 ・・・ the Obama administration has not yet put forth any formal argument for why it would not be violating international law by attacking Syria. If it wants to base such a claim on the enforcement of an “evolving norm” of customary international law, it should do so explicitly.・・・

 Al-Qaeda’s Proxies Among Syria’s Rebels Scared by Threat of U.S. Strikes・・・

 A war the Pentagon doesn’t want・・・
 So far, at least, this path to war violates every principle of war, including the element of surprise, achieving mass and having a clearly defined and obtainable objective.・・・
 United States is the only liberal democracy that has never been ruled by its military. ・・・


 ・・・liberal Democrats and libertarian Republicans, united by their opposition to a military strike against Syria.・・・
 This is not their first time working together. In July, many of the same members led an effort to rein in National Security Agency spying -- limiting it only to people tied to an active investigation.
 Obama opposed them. Boehner opposed them. And the coalition lost. But not by much: The margin was 217 to 205. For many members, that was a sign that they could find allies across the aisle.・・・
 ・・・The Senate could take the first vote on the issue as soon as Wednesday, but the House should "expect a robust debate" and a vote in the "next two weeks・・・
 French President Francois Hollande, who offered the earliest support for Obama's plan, said Friday that his country will not engage in any action until after U.N. inspectors issue their report on the attack.・・・


 US Secretary of State John Kerry has said the number of states ready to take military action against Syria's government is in the "double digits".・・・





 ・・・ President Obama will begin an intensive public and private lobbying push this week to win congressional support for a limited missile strike against Syria, but even some of the strongest supporters on Capitol Hill for military action are pessimistic that the White House will succeed.・・・
 ・・・several of the administration’s key backers on Syria said Sunday that the effort may be too little, too late・・・
 ・・・A complicating factor is that this president has limited political capital to draw on— and that won’t change until the economy shows greater momentum.・・・





 The US secretary of state has said that President Bashar al-Assad has one week to hand over his entire stock of chemical weapons to avoid a military attack. But John Kerry added that he had no expectation that the Syrian leader would comply.・・・




 ・・・Syria is thought to possess the third-largest chemical weapons stockpile in the world, after the United States and Russia, which are in the process of destroying theirs.・・・


 Russia's proposal for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to place his chemical weapons under international supervision and then destroy them is quickly gaining steam. ・・・
 There's just one problem: the plan would be nearly impossible to actually carry out. ・・・






 ・・・When we say we are exceptional, what we really are saying is we are different. With few exceptions, we are all strangers to our land・・・
 We believe this mixing, together with our free society, has produced generations of creative energy and ingenuity, from the Declaration of Independence to Facebook, from Thomas Jefferson to Miley Cyrus. There is no other country quite like that.
 Americans aren’t better than others, but our American experience is unique ― exceptional ― and it has created the world’s most powerful economy and military, which, more often than not, has been used for good in the world.・・・

 ・・・Syrian President Bashar al-Assad added to the tension by saying that he is willing to place his chemical arsenal under international control ― but only if the United States stops threatening military action and arming rebel forces trying to unseat him. ・・・





 ・・・ In 1999, the House of Representatives refused to back Clinton's air war over Kosovo; Clinton went ahead anyway after winning a vote in the Senate. And even more recently, in June 2011, the House voted against authorizing Obama's intervention in Libya ― one justified mostly on humanitarian grounds ― by a lopsided 295 to 123. (The vote came after U.S. strikes on Libya were already underway, and Obama ignored it.)・・・


 「シリア化学兵器:米露の協議は1年前から 露外相明かす…」

 ・・・Without chemical weapons, Syria is less of a threat to Israel and thus less of an asset to its military ally and financial patron, Iran・・・
 Already dependent economically and militarily on Iran and its Lebanese ally Hizbollah, Mr Assad also finds himself ever more beholden to Russia, a patron with a long record of sacrificing vassals for its own ends. ・・・








 ・・・Some analysts claim Assad is winning the military war. That is wrong. The battlefield is deadlocked and will remain so as long as the rebels continue getting arms. But thanks to Lavrov and Putin and the growing international fear of the jihadists, Assad is winning the political war.


 ・・・In 2004, the town of Fallujah was the scene of some of the most pitched fighting between US forces and Iraqi insurgents. It was credited as a turning point that helped solidify allied control of Anbar province and set the groundwork for a more stable Iraq.
 News that the town has once again been taken by rebels aligned with al-Qaeda has people wondering if allied efforts there were for naught.
"The people who attacked us on 9/11 now own the key battleground in a war we launched ostensibly in response," writes James Joyner of Outside the Beltway blog. "Aside from regime change itself, it's not clear that we accomplished a single one of our objectives in that conflict. There was no nuclear program. The chemical weapons cache consisted of a few leftovers from the world wars. The Maliki government is corrupt and incompetent to provide basic security for the citizenry. And now al-Qaeda is running major outposts."
 This wouldn't have happened if the US hadn't hastily pulled out of Iraq, writes Digital Journal's Abdul Kuddus: "With the withdrawal of US forces from Anbar province two years ago, al-Qaeda took advantage of the power vacuum and drove out the Iraqi forces."・・・
 "Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has no-one but himself to blame," he writes. "If he had embraced the Sunni Awakening movement, Iraq likely would have remained relatively peaceful. Instead, the moment that US troops left Iraq, he immediately began victimizing prominent Sunnis."・・・
 Fox News national security analyst KT McFarland writes that both Mr Bush (for getting the US into Iraq) and Mr Obama (for getting the US out too soon) are to blame. ・・・

 Syrian rebels pin down al-Qaeda-linked fighters in Raqqah・・・


 ・・・The fighting over the past week is a watershed moment for the Syrian uprising. The momentum against extremism can pave the way for the re-emergence of moderate groups that had been pushed to the margins under ISIS's reign of terror. The episode has proved that it is Syria's mainstream rebels who are best fit to face down extremists -- not the Assad regime.


 Extremist Militant Group in Syria Retakes Ground Lost to Rival Rebels・・・






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