・・・The brains of people living in cities operate differently from those in rural areas, according to a brain-scanning study. Scientists found that two regions, ・・・amygdala(扁桃体) does <which is> the danger-sensor of the brain and is therefore linked to anxiety and depressioninvolved in the regulation of emotion and anxiety・・・<and> cingulate cortex(帯状回皮質) <which> is important for controlling emotion and dealing with environmental adversity・・・, become overactive in city-dwellers when they are stressed and argue that the differences could account for the increased rates of mental health problems seen in urban areas.
 Previous research has shown that people living in cities have a 21% increased risk of anxiety disorders and a 39% increased risk of mood disorders. In addition, the incidence of schizophrenia is twice as high in those born and brought up in cities.・・・


 ・・・shyness and introversion -- or more precisely, the careful, sensitive temperament from which both often spring -- are not just normal. They are valuable. And they may be essential to the survival of our species. ・・・
 Introverts, who tend to digest information thoroughly, stay on task, and work accurately, earn disproportionate numbers of National Merit Scholarship finalist positions and・・・even though their I.Q. scores are no higher than those of extroverts. Another study, by the psychologists・・・, <as far as> knowledge of 20 different subjects <are concerned>, from art to astronomy to statistics,・・・the introverts knew more than the extroverts about 19 subjects -- presumably,・・・because the more time people spend socializing, the less time they have for learning.
 ・・・many of the most creative people in a range of fields are introverts who are comfortable working in solitary conditions in which they can focus attention inward.・・・
 Shy children are often easier to socialize and more conscientious・・・
 By 7 they’re more likely to be described by their parents as having high levels of moral traits such as empathy. ・・・
 Another advantage sitters bring to leadership is a willingness to listen to and implement other people’s ideas.・・・

 ・・・straight women at their peak period of fertility are far more accurate than non-ovulaters at sussing out who's gay and who's not just by looking at a man's face.・・・
 Finally, researchers went a step further, asking half the female subjects to read a sexy story in order to "induce reproductive thinking" before repeating the previous two experiments with both groups. The women who'd read the tale -- a hokey-sounding beach romance about meeting a handsome guy on an island ― were even more successful at predicting sexual orientation than the control group, an outcome that Rule says proves that women's brains are evolutionarily primed for mating during ovulation.・・・
 <既に、排卵期の女性は男の顔を覚える能力が高まるってことが分かっていたんだね。 また、昨年には排卵期の女性は父親に寄り付かなくなる傾向があることが分かった。近親相姦を避けようとするってわけだ。↓>
 Previous research has found that women are quicker to identify a man's face than a woman's face near ovulation; subsequent analysis divined that the opposite held true for lesbians: they were faster to pick out a woman's face. Last year, another study・・・found that ovulating women are half as likely to call their dads. Why? Because incestuous relationships are more likely to produce problematic offspring, women are unconsciously shunning pop at their most fertile time of the month.・・・


 ・・・Suicides among active-duty soldiers jumped from 138 in 2008 to 162 in 2009, according to the most recently available Army statistics.
 Cases of spousal abuse and child abuse or neglect almost doubled between 2004 and 2009, from 913 to 1,625, the Army said. And referrals for alcohol and drug abuse rose from 15,000 in 1999 to 22,500 in 2009.・・・
 “When I came in the Army, which was 1978, nobody was going anywhere and doing anything. Vietnam was over.”
 Now,・・・almost everybody who joins is quickly deployed to a hot zone, and faces redeployment over and over. “It’s a different Army, and nobody sees peace breaking out.”・・・


 ・・・South Korea, once even poorer than woeful North Korea, now boasts the world’s 13th-largest economy.・・・
 Young people in South Korea are certainly unhappy, even chronically so, in part because of ferocious academic pressures that begin early on. A recent survey here found that young Koreans -- for the third straight year -- were the unhappiest youngsters in a subset of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries.・・・
 “With depression, the inclination for Koreans is to just bear with it and get over it,” he said. “If someone goes to a psychoanalyst, they know they’ll be stigmatized for the rest of their life. So they don’t go.”・・・
 ・・・the suicide rate in South Korea is nothing short of alarming, nearly three times higher than in the United States. The rate here doubled in the decade between 1999 and 2009. ・・・
 “We have seen a rapid increase in depression, and I’d say 80 to 90 percent of our suicides are byproducts of depression,”・・・
 ・・・shamanism has made something of a comeback in South Korea in recent years, with an estimated 300,000 shamans ministering to clients.・・・


 Survey Shows Men Need to Cuddle, Women Value Sex・・・
 The study involved 1,009 heterosexual middle-aged and older couples in long-term (average 25 years) committed relationships in five countries. ・・・
 ・・・men who reported frequent kissing or cuddling with their partners were on average three times as happy with their relationships as men who reported limited snuggling. For women, such shows of tenderness didn't have much impact on relationship satisfaction.・・・
 For women, sex got better over time: they reported significantly more sexual satisfaction after being with their partner for 15 years.
"Possibly, women become more satisfied over time because their expectations change, or life changes with the children grown," ・・・
  "On the other hand, those who weren't so happy sexually might not be married so long."・・・
 The couples in the survey hailed from Japan, Brazil, the U.S., Germany and Spain. The study found that Japanese couples were significantly happier with their relationships than American couples, who were in turn happier than couples from Brazil and Spain. The Japanese were also more likely to report sexual satisfaction than Americans: Japanese men in particular were 2.61 times more sexually satisfied than American men. As for women, Japanese and Brazilian women were more likely to report sexual satisfaction than their American counterparts.・・・


 ・・・sex evolved because it lets organisms reshuffle their genes into new combinations to stay a step ahead of parasites. ・・・
 Parasites create a situation where, in spite of the disadvantages of sex, it is good for an organism to reshuffle its genome with that of another.
This reshuffling creates offspring with new gene combinations that are potentially better than older combinations at resisting a parasite's advances. ・・・






 ・・・people are more likely to remember things they do not think they can find using a computer and vice versa. In addition, people are better at remembering where to look for information on the Internet than they are remembering the information itself・・・

 ・・・ the research team discovered that a baboon's stress level dropped as his rank rose ― except for the alpha males. The top baboons had 10% more glucocorticoid than their runners-up, and matched those of the lowest-ranked baboons. (Testosterone levels, predictably, rose with rank.)・・・
 Though short bursts of glucocorticoid can be helpful, animals with consistently high levels wear out their reproductive and immune systems, among other adverse health effects.・・・
 fending off challenges and courting females takes time and energy. Lower-ranking baboons, on the other hand, probably experience stress for different reasons, including less access to food and the tendency to get thrashed by socially superior peers.・・・


 ・・・One of the oldest tales of penile rage involves Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife and the underworld, and his sister/wife Isis, goddess of motherhood and magic. Their brother Set, god of chaos, was jealous of the relationship and killed Osiris, cutting him into 14 pieces that he scattered across Egypt. Isis was able to collect and reassemble 13 of the pieces, but could not find the penis, which had been eaten by a fish. To replace it, she fashioned one out of gold before bringing him back to life. Using the new phallus, the couple conceived Horus, the god of the sky and vengeance.・・・
 ・・・of 2,052 people surveyed, nearly as many women (49%) play online video games as men (50%)・・・
 Of the women who said they played online games, 84% said they "enjoy" gaming, compared with 70% who said they enjoy sex, 75% who said they enjoy taking a bath, 71% who enjoy shopping and 62% who enjoy exercising.・・・
 ・・・just 64% of women reported experiencing an orgasm during their most recent sexual experience (the percentage is presumably much higher for men), while about one-third (30%) of women actually experienced pain (compared with just 5% of men). ・・・



 Your Doctor's Bedside Manner Could Affect Your Health・・・








 Study of women between 5ft and 5ft 9in tall finds chances of developing cancer rise by 16% for every 10cm in height・・・

 ・・・Our ability and propensity to imitate is certainly important for our social life, particularly in early infancy. Yet, likewise important is our ability to suppress these spontaneous tendencies.・・・






 サイトを上げる余裕がないのですが、癌の発症率: イヌ >>> ネコ






 ・・・A Twitter account attributed to the suspect has also emerged but it only has one post, which is a quote from philosopher John Stuart Mill: "One person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests." ・・・


 ・・・Professor Jeremy Coid, professor of forensic psychiatry at Queen Mary college, University of London, says that・・・ while there are all sorts of cross-cutting with right-wing ideology, I believe he is likely to be suffering from a mental disorder.・・・
 He explains that there are basically three diagnoses that could be made: that Mr Breivik is suffering from paranoid psychosis - or a delusional disorder - that he has a severe narcissistic personality or that he is has a schizoid personality disorder. ・・・

 Human brains shrink as people grow old, unlike even our closest animal relative・・・
 Unlike chimpanzees and other primates, elderly humans are prey to a host of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.・・・
 ・・・humanity's unusual shrinking brain just may be the price our species pays for living so much longer than other primates・・・
 As the brain normally ages, it acquires the neural equivalent of sore knees and stiff fingers. Natural grooves in the brain widen. Healthy swellings subside. And tangles of damaged neurons become dense thickets of dysfunctional synapses.・・・


 ・・・officials lowered the death toll significantly on Monday, down from 93, the country's justice minister announced that workers from within his ministry were still missing after the massive explosion there.・・・

 Norway attacks: Anders Behring Breivik appears insane, says his lawyer・・・

 ・・・ Anders Breivik does not tell us anything about Norway. No, he does not tell us anything about "the state of modern society". He tells us nothing about terrorism or gun control or policing or political holiday camps. His avowal of fascism could as well have been of communism or Islamism or anarchism. The desperate, perhaps understandable, search to find meaning in such acts is dangerous. Breivik does not even measure up to the ideological coherence of the nazism he admired. He is plainly very sick.・・・
 That he does something terrible does not make him a terrorist. ・・・

 ・・・To understand the dangers posed by these borderline extremists, I recommend a new report by Richard Danzig and his colleagues at the Center for a New American Security.・・・
 Danzig and his co-authors make the essential point: In dealing with these extremist groups and cults, the world is playing Russian roulette: “Many chambers in the gun prove to be harmless, but some chambers are loaded.” Another bullet was fired last Friday, and we are surely clicking toward more. The surprise is that we’re still surprised.
 妄想 - Wikipedia、しかも他者を無差別で殺戮することにつながる妄想、を個人だけじゃなく、集団だって抱くことがあるってことだろうな。↑

 ・・・regardless of the total amount of sleep or sleep intensity, a minimal unit of uninterrupted sleep is crucial for memory consolidation・・・

 卵子提供へ日本人女性海渡る 100人超、謝礼60万円・・・


 ・・・his cold-blooded brutality alone, which tempts us to consider him insane, does not necessarily prove that he is not culpable for what he did -- as his defense lawyer is attempting to argue.
 Were that the case, Nazi thugs who massacred and drove millions of men, women and children into the gas chambers -- and, more importantly, those who dreamt up this lunacy and issued the orders -- would have been the innocent victims of their mental illness. Hitler, Stalin and the like -- history is full of people we call monsters, beasts or animals, because they seem to lack everything that makes us human. Napoleon and other famous war heroes, who drove their soldiers into senseless, brutal deaths, those responsible for the Massacre of the Innocents, the Crusaders, the Holy Inquisition, the witch burners, the suicide bombers of today, those who embark on killing sprees. No animal behaves quite the way human beings do from time to time.・・・
 <Whether he> had planned <his> crime・・・too carefully and acted too deliberately for that.・・・

 ・・・Emile Durkheim, the founding father of sociology, in his great work, “Suicide,” published at the end of the 19th century, drew attention to the phenomenon of “anomie.” Society is held together and sustained, he argued, by a network of norms ― largely unstated rules of behavior. Suicides, he argued, tend to suffer from anomie, or normlessness: they float free from the life-belt of rules and regulations, and often sink.・・・
 But it strikes me that there is something like the exact opposite anxiety ― a pathological preoccupation with norms, which I want to call hypernomia ― running through her music and her published interviews. Winehouse was the victim of another kind of “losing game” (other than love). It was part of her appeal that she was always outspoken and spontaneous in her conversation, ・・・
 Her self-destructiveness may have been triggered by a heightened preoccupation with a norm of beauty which she did not feel she conformed to. ・・・
 While Amy Winehouse turned her overly normative critical apparatus on herself, Breivik applied his with monstrous consequences on just about anyone other than himself・・・

 Humans living at high latitude have bigger eyes and bigger brains to cope with poor light during long winters and cloudy days・・・.
 ・・・bigger brains did not make people smarter.・・・


 ・・・co-sleeping, common in many areas of the world including Asia and Africa, is fairly unusual in the U.S., where children start sleeping in their own rooms at early ages.・・・
 Parents who share a bed with their child・・・doesn't give rise to learning or behavior problems.・・・




 ・・・self-reported levels of anger, stress, and worry plummet at 50 and that a few years later, happiness rises. This pattern held true for men and women, married and unmarried, the working and the jobless・・・
 ・・・younger people are more likely to experience pure, unalloyed happiness or sadness, whereas older people are more likely to experience sadness and happiness mixed together. ・・・
 ・・・older adults selectively focus on positive images and memories more than younger people do.・・・
 ・・・older people were better at seeing others' points of view, grasping nuanced issues and forging compromise. ・・・

 The secret to a very long life may have nothing to do with what you eat, how much exercise you get, or whether you smoke or drink. It may be because you got lucky with your gene pool・・・


 ・・・A report in the journal Nature Genetics showed that "fresh mutations" in DNA are involved in at least half of schizophrenia cases, when there is no family history of the illness.
 Researchers found mutations in 40 different genes. ・・・


 ・・・香港大学専門研修学院(HKU SPACE)が、「日本の性風俗文化」とテーマとした型破りな授業を開講した。・・・





 ・・・Psychoanalysis and plastic surgery, both once maverick medical specialties, overlapped closely in their historical development. While the “talking cure” treated bodily complaints via the mind, plastic surgery healed mental suffering via the body. Historian Sander Gilman called plastic surgery “psychoanalysis in reverse.”・・・


 ・・・the main determinants of happiness: the small effect of money, the great effect of marriage and friends, the massive effect of personality. ・・・
 Happiness today predicts higher job performance, better relationships and more years of health in the future. ・・・
 ・・・in First World countries there is little connection between either absolute or relative income and happiness. ・・・


 Exercising for just 15 minutes a day can increase your life expectancy by three years compared with doing little or no exercise・・・

 数年前にセックスをテーマにした小説でバカあたりした、ドイツの女性作家のCharlotte Roche が、再び同じテーマの小説を出して大きな話題を呼んでいるらしい。↓

 そういえば、米国でも、あのニコルソン・ベーカー(Nicholson Baker)(コラム#2410、2412、2419、2831、4206、4834)もセックスをテーマにした小説を出したぞ。↓


 ・・・stimulation of the・・・nipples・・・excited the brain・・・areas corresponding to genital stimulation・・・
 There are two possible explanations for the nipple finding. The first is related to the fact that nipple stimulation releases oxytocin, the same hormone that is released during orgasm, bonding and breast feeding, which also causes uterine contractions. So stimulation of the nipples may indirectly also stimulate the genitals and account for the activation in the same brain region.・・・
 The second explanation is that the wiring from the nipples to the brain is direct; perhaps the sensory pathways from the nipples converge with those from the genitals in the cortex, and simultaneously stimulate cells in another brain region that produces oxytocin. ・・・


 "It does tell us that human nature is not totally under the control of what we like to think of as free will, but that the majority of us can be seduced into behaving in ways totally atypical of what we believe we are," he said

 ・・・every hour of TV that participants watched after age 25 was associated with a 22-minute reduction in their life expectancy.・・・


 Wasting time online boosts worker productivity・・・
 Surfing the Web is even better for productivity than talking or texting with friends or sending personal emails・・・

 ・・・Only about a quarter of STEM・・・science, technology, engineering and math・・・jobs in the U.S. are held by women, and women who major in STEM in college are far more likely to enter unrelated fields after graduation, compared with men.・・・
 Women who were primed to think about romance were less likely to be interested in STEM or to choose it as a major ― but were more interested in majoring in such "feminine" subjects as English or foreign language ― compared with women who were primed to think about intelligence or friendship.・・・
 For men, interest in STEM did not change regardless of what they were primed to think about.・・・



< http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/aug/19...
http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/aug/19/honey-... >


 ・・・women are most attracted to men who make their feelings unclear. ・・・
 Perhaps, but only in the beginning.・・・
 too much uncertainty can cause a partner to “get frustrated and quit.”・・・



 脚線美を露わにした漢人女性ピアニストのYuja Wan(コラム#4929)の話題がまた出てた。性的魅力を積極的に活用(コラム#4941、4943)して成功を勝ち取りつつある女性の例がここにもある。↓




 著者はChris Organ, Charles L. Nunn, Zarin Machanda, and Richard W.Wranghamの論文で、著者の中に、ランガムが入ってます。それも最終著者として。
 原論文は、Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo PNAS 2011 ; published ahead of print August 22, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1107806108 です。

 The efficient caveman cook
 Preparing food allowed ancestors to reduce chewing time
 Cooking, he <Richard Wrangham, Ruth Moore Professor of Biological Anthropology> argues, not only increased the calories available to ancestors and gave them more time for other activities, but it also sparked physical changes such as a bigger brain and a smaller gut, and social changes centered around the home and hearth.



 ・・・there is actually a "beauty premium" paid to good-looking people. On average, in the U.S., they make 5% more than average-looking people, who in turn make 10% more than those deemed unattractive.・・・
 Women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men・・・

 ・・・Both marriage and divorce appear to lead to weight gain among couples・・・
 ・・・women tended to gain more weight than men after marriage, while after a divorce, men's girth expanded more than women's.・・・

 ・・・Patients who were married when they underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were more than twice as likely to survive for 15 years, compared with unmarried patients, and those who were in happier marriages were more likely to live longer.・・・
 ・・・while men tend to benefit from marriage in general, women may benefit only when the unions are happy.・・・
 ・・・women are more physiologically sensitive to relationship distress than men, so an unhappy marriage can take a greater toll on their health・・・
 ・・・any effect on longevity that's attributable to marriage probably applies to all long-term, supportive relationships, not just legal unions. ・・・




 ・・・The most well-studied difference between monozygotic twins derives from a genetic phenomenon known as copy number variations. Certain, lengthy strands of nucleotides appear more than once in the genome, and the frequency of these repetitions can vary from one twin to another. By some estimates, copy number variations compose nearly 30 percent of a person's genetic code.
 These repeats matter. More than 40 percent of the known copy number variations involve genes that affect human development, and there are strong indications they explain observed differences between monozygotic twins.・・・


 ・・・Professor Kenji Shibuya, of the department of global health policy at the University of Tokyo, and colleagues <says>・・・"First, Japanese people give attention to hygiene in all aspects of their daily life,・・・This attitude might partly be attributable to a complex interaction of culture, education, climate [eg humidity, temperature], environment [eg having plenty of water and being a rice-eating nation] and the old Shinto tradition of purifying the body and mind before meeting others.
 "Second, they are health conscious. In Japan, regular check-ups are the norm. Mass screening is provided for everyone at school and work or in the community by local government authorities. ・・・
 "Third, Japanese food has a balanced nutritional benefit and the diet of the Japanese population has improved in tandem with economic development over the past five decades."・・・


 Prostitution is a legal and taxable trade in Germany・・・<In t>he city of Bonn・・・<p>rostitutes must now pay a nightly tax to automated ticket machines.・・・


 ・・・it does strike me that a high proportion of successful male writers do tend to be strikingly good looking, albeit in their differing ways: The stately Thomas Mann; William Faulkner, the country gentleman; the he-man Hemingway; the urbane Gore Vidal.・・・

 ・・・Interacting with others, sharing space, and competing for food and mates ― it's all very stress-inducing, for man or mouse. "Not all social interaction is friendly and happy," says During. "It's much more dynamic, challenging and mildly stressful."
 And it turns out that the stress, which can boost corticosteroids and the sympathetic nervous system to keep the body on high alert, can also push it to burn more calories by swapping out more white fat for brown fat cells.・・・

 ・・・A study of 14,000 women concluded that those who drink in moderation were far more likely to reach 70 in good health than heavier drinkers or abstainers.
 Spreading consumption over the week is better than saving it for the weekend, the researchers say. ・・・


 ・・・women are much more willing than men to compete as part of a team.
 Nearly two-thirds of the "gender competition gap" – the gap between the likelihood of men or women to enter a competition – disappears when people are offered the chance to compete in two-person teams rather than as individuals.・・・
 Even though men and women performed equally well on the task, 81% of men chose to compete as individuals compared with 28% of women.
 When participants competed in teams, the gender competition gap shrank by 31 percentage points to 22%, with 67% of men choosing to enter the competition compared with 45% of women.・・・
 Women are much more likely to be active in politics in countries with party lists than in those where a single person is elected.・・・


 ・・・While higher testosterone is considered beneficial for finding a partner, the male virility hormone drops once a stable relationship is formed and slides again during child-rearing・・・
 The men with the highest testosterone levels were more likely to become fathers・・・five years later・・・






 ・・・laughter may have been favored by evolution because it helped bring human groups together, the way other activities like dancing and singing do. Those activities also produce endorphins・・・
 ・・・laughing increased pain resistance・・・
 ・・・apes are known to laugh, although in a different way than humans. They pant・・・Pant, pant becomes ha, ha.

 ・・・We know that the risk factors for stroke are the same as for heart disease. We know that the risk factors for ED are the same as for heart disease. And we are finding that the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's are the same as for heart disease.・・・


 ・・・measures of self-control can be a more reliable predictor of students’ grade-point averages than their I.Q.’s. But while self-control seemed to be a critical ingredient in attaining basic success, Duckworth came to feel it wasn’t as relevant when it came to outstanding achievement. People who accomplished great things, she noticed, often combined a passion for a single mission with an unswerving dedication to achieve that mission, whatever the obstacles and however long it might take. She decided she needed to name this quality, and she chose the word “grit.”
 She developed a test to measure grit, which she called the Grit Scale. It is a deceptively simple test, in that it requires you to rate yourself on just 12 questions, from “I finish whatever I begin” to “I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one.” It takes about three minutes to complete, and it relies entirely on self-report ― and yet when Duckworth took it out into the field, she found it was remarkably predictive of success. ・・・


 Electrically stimulating the brain can help to speed up the process of learning, scientists have shown.・・・
 While the stimulation didn't improve the participant's best performance, the speed at which they reached their best was significantly increased・・・
 Targeting the area of the brain that controls motor skills allows movement tasks to be learned more quickly, and the researchers envisage the technique could be used to help in the training of sportsmen.・・・
 It is the hope of the researchers that the same method may be applied to other parts of the brain to improve educational learning・・・

 ・・・ doing kind things for others strengthens our connection with them and builds trust -- particularly with strangers -- leading to happier communities. The acts can be large or small, but must be beyond the things you do regularly.・・・
 Next I must write down, every night, three things I'm grateful for. This, apparently, helps us to feel happier, healthier and more fulfilled -- and less materialistic.・・・
 Another suggestion is that you should thank the people you're grateful to, and that the best way to do this is by writing a letter, then reading it to them.・・・
 ・・・all happiness can be contagious. ・・・





 One in 25 bosses may be psychopaths(精神病質者) ― a rate that's four times greater than in the general population ・・・
 Psychopaths, who are characterized by being completely amoral and concerned only with their own power and selfish pleasures, may be overrepresented in the business environment because it plays to their strengths. Where greed is considered good and profitmaking is the most important value, psychopaths can thrive.
 They also tend to be charming and manipulative ― and in corporate America, that easily passes for leadership.・・・
 ・・・psychopaths are actually poor managerial performers but are adept at climbing the corporate ladder because they can cover up their weaknesses by subtly charming superiors and subordinates. This makes it almost impossible to distinguish between a genuinely talented team leader and a psychopath・・・


 ・・・there can be positive aspects to time spent apart from a spouse--at least for wives. ・・・
 Research has shown that women who are married to fishermen and truckers--careers that can separate spouses for weeks or even months―also profit from time alone.
 Time spent apart can benefit women by making them more emotionally self-reliant.・・・
 Women may also become more physically self-reliant when their husbands are away.・・・
 The communication between spouses can also improve both during and after periods of separation.・・・
 There is, however, one situation in which separation does not have many benefits: When one member of a military couple is deployed in a war zone.・・・


 Women who drink two or more cups of coffee a day are less likely to get depressed・・・
 This fits nicely with a lot of the previous work and what we know about caffeine and the brain. It blocks adenosine, which produces a similar effect to increasing dopamine production. And it's becoming increasingly clear that the dopamine-rich areas of the brain are much more important in depression that previously thought.・・・

 ・・・in women, the strongest predictor of hair loss was marital status・・・from divorce or the death of a spouse, for example・・・. Women who had lost a spouse were more likely to have barer pates than their sisters with stable marriages. The data also suggested that smoking, a history of skin conditions and diabetes were also linked with greater hair loss. Other contributing factors: excessive sleeping patterns and other lifestyle factors that are often associated with high stress, like having a lot of kids, having a lot of money and high blood pressure.
 Coffee-drinking women, those who protected their heads from sun exposure (with a hat, for instance) and the happily married were less likely to have thinning hair.・・・



 ・・・kids who grew up poor were 40% more likely to have metabolic syndrome in adulthood -- which includes high blood pressure, glucose intolerance and extra fat around the middle -- than more privileged children. That elevated risk remained even in poor children who grew up to complete college and raise their socioeconomic status.・・・
 Children who were raised in low-educated families, but whose mothers were nurturing, were no more likely to have metabolic syndrome than kids whose parents had four-year college degrees.・・・
 Maternal nurture・・・lowers children's levels of stress hormones. ・・・
 High levels of nurture can teach kids growing up in a dangerous and unpredictable environment that you can trust some people. You don't have always have be suspicious. You don't always have to be ramped up and vigilant・・・
 ・・・a state of high vigilance and mistrust goes hand-in-hand with elevated stress hormone levels.・・・




 ・・・ we are living in the middle of an “empathy craze.” There are shelfloads of books about it: “The Age of Empathy,” “The Empathy Gap,” “The Empathic Civilization,” “Teaching Empathy.” There’s even a brain theory that we have mirror neurons in our heads that enable us to feel what’s in other people’s heads and that these neurons lead to sympathetic care and moral action.・・・
 <However,> empathy is not a major player when it comes to moral motivation. Its contribution is negligible in children, modest in adults, and nonexistent when costs are significant.・・・
 Moreover・・・empathy often leads people astray. It influences people to care more about cute victims than ugly victims. It leads to nepotism. ・・・
 Empathy is a sideshow. If you want to make the world a better place, help people debate, understand, reform, revere and enact their・・・ some religious, military, social or philosophic ・・・codes. ・・・


 ・・・the secret to women's super immune systems lies in their extra X-chromosome. These chromosomes are packed with molecules called microRNAs, which just so happen to be key in regulating the immune system.・・・
 When one of a woman's X-chromosomes is compromised, the other one is quick to kick in and pick up the slack ― kind of like a back-up player for your body.・・・
 ・・・in humans, as well as other mammals, females live longer than males and are more able to fight off shock episodes from sepsis(化膿症), infection(感染) or trauma(外傷)・・・
 ・・・there are a few negatives to women's superhuman immunity: It can also lead to severe responses to infections, meaning that women are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases and have serious bouts of the flu.・・・


 ・・・when someone is hospitalised after they have had a psychotic episode, the emphasis should be on what kept them stable for the decades before. ・・・


 ・・・people's ability to distinguish between what really happened and what was imagined may be determined by the presence of a fold at the front of the brain that develops late in pregnancy, and is missing entirely in 27% of people.・・・
 <その部位とは、paracingulate sulcusであり、前頭葉の中にある。その大きさは人によってずいぶん違いがあり、脳の両側にある人も片側にしかない人もいる。精神分裂病の人の44%はこの部位を持っていない。↓>
 The key brain structure identified by the study is called the paracingulate sulcus (PCS), a fold in part of the prefrontal cortex, the region that is involved with planning, thought and judgment. The size of the PCS varies greatly in normal people, and some people a PCS only on one side of their brain, while others have one on both. Compared to the quarter or so of healthy people who are completely missing the PCS, 44% of people with schizophrenia do not have it, suggesting that its absence could play a role in the disease.
 But the new study found that even normal people without the PCS have difficulty distinguishing between what they remembered and what they imagined.・・・
 But since 27% of normal people are missing a PCS but only about 1% of the population has schizophrenia, clearly the disease has other contributors. ・・・


 ・・・ breastfeeding・・・can boost children's IQ and health and reduces the chances of behavioural and weight problems.・・・
 ・・・breastfeeding provides more benefits the longer you do it.・・・





 ・・・<In>the Aka and Ngandu・・・peaceful net-hunting foragers in central Africa・・・<societies,> homosexuality and masturbation・・・are rare or nonexistent,・・・not because they are frowned upon or punished, but because they are not part of the cultural models of sexuality in either group.”・・・
 On average--and remember, this isn’t just newlywed teenagers, but also middle-aged couples we’re talking about--the Aka reported having sex three times per night, and the Ngandu twice per night. According to the Hewletts, these groups consider sex as being more like work than recreational activity. Given the importance placed on having many children--coupled with a high infant mortality rate--the Aka and Ngandu view sex as an exercise in gathering offspring, a form of nocturnal labor that is just as important as their subsistence activities during daylight.・・・
 As evidence of this secondary role of pleasure, there’s not a lot of foreplay in Aka sexuality. ・・・


 ・・・supplements・・・vitamins and minerals・・・should only be used if there is a strong medically-based cause for doing so because of the potential to cause harm.・・・





 ・・・There are two main reasons the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder(注意欠陥・多動性障害) is high in the U.S. First of all, our gene pool is loaded for A.D.H.D. Consider the central symptoms of the condition: distractibility, impulsivity and restlessness. Consider also the positives that so often accompany A.D.H.D.: being a dreamer and a pioneer, being creative, entrepreneurial, having an ability to think outside the box (with some difficulty thinking inside of it!), a tendency to be independent of mind and able to pursue a vision that goes against convention. Well, who colonized this country? People who have those traits!・・・
 Another reason we diagnose so much A.D.H.D. in this country is that most of the important research into the condition was done in America by Americans. ・・・
 ・・・More than 5 million U.S. children, or 9.5 percent, were diagnosed with A.D.H.D. as of 2007. About 2.8 million had received a prescription for a stimulant medication in 2008.・・・


 ・・・people who prioritize money are less likely to be satisfied in said marriages.・・・

 ・・・People value possessions, in part, because they afford a sense of protection, insurance, and comfort,・・・But what we found was that if people already have a feeling of being loved and accepted by others, which also can provide a sense of protection, insurance and comfort, those possessions decrease in value・・・


 ・・・those who meet their partners while taking oral contraceptives report less sexual satisfaction in their relationships ― but they're also less likely to split up.・・・
 People tend to be attracted to partners with MHC<(=major histocompatibility system=主要組織適合抗原系) types that are dissimilar from their own, probably because this would give their offspring a greater chance of survival by creating a diversified immune system. The pill, however, puts the body into a hormonal state similar to pregnancy ― and pregnant women tend to prefer MHC scents that are similar to their own, probably because this would make them feel safe and comfortable around supportive relatives.・・・


 Every five hours a child dies from abuse or neglect in the US. ・・・
 In fact, America has the worst child abuse record in the industrialised world. ・・・
 Sixty-six children under the age of 15 die from physical abuse or neglect every week in the industrialised world. Twenty-seven of those die in the US - the highest number of any other country.
 Even when populations are taken into account, Unicef research from 2001 places the US equal bottom with Mexico on child deaths from maltreatment. ・・・
 ・・・Abused children are 74 times more likely to commit crimes against others and six times more likely to maltreat their own children・・・


 ・・・The average of all scores stayed the same across the years・・・
 The teens split evenly between those whose IQ improved and those whose IQ worsened.・・・
 The team now wants to know what causes IQ drift: the rate of brain change, or educational factors that stimulate some skills but not others; and also if changes are teenage only or whether IQ can vary as dramatically in adults. ・・・

 ・・・thinking of what the study terms “low survivability conditions” prompts an unconscious drive to reproduce among men. While things like joblessness or poverty might not seem dangerous, Gillath says money troubles are perceived as a threat because their effects can, in the most extreme cases, lead people to go without food or shelter.・・・
 ・・・men are motivated to seek more sexual partners in a threatening economic environment as a result. Gillath also says his findings hold true for men, but not women. ・・・
 ・・・men would be more apt to pursue sex outside of a monogamous relationship, looking for ways to spread their genes. ・・・


 ・・・Antidepressant prescribing has risen nearly 400% since 1988・・・
 More than 1 in 10 Americans over age 12 now takes an antidepressant,・・・and yet two-thirds of those with severe symptoms of depression do not take antidepressants at all.・・・
 depression is common: 9.1% of American adults will suffer from the illness at any given time・・・
 ・・・depression is seen twice as often in women than in men. ・・・



 Japan's 77-year-old porn actor: unlikely face of an ageing population・・・

 困難な仕事に取り組むこと! 天下りをした官僚OBの諸君、読んでるかい?↓
 ・・・The best known method to improve underlying intelligence is hard work. Teenage dropouts lose between 1.5 and 5 points of IQ for every year of school they miss. People who work in challenging jobs that require problem-solving skills see gradual increases in their IQ scores, while those whose jobs involve mindless repetition see their test scores erode over time. The elderly are at special risk for mental atrophy and declining IQ. ・・・

 ・・・the workplace does tend to reward disagreeable behavior. Disagreeable men tend to earn more than agreeable men・・・
 ・・・the rewards of disagreeableness for women are limited--far more so than for men. What’s more, if women push their disagreeable behavior in the workplace too far, they risk a major backlash.・・・


 ・・・If someone drinks one drink a day, one small drink every day of their life, they're most unlikely to run into harm. But if you are going out and having a lot to drink then you should perhaps rest your body.・・・
 ・・・safe limits for drinking alcohol by older people should be drastically cut.・・・


 ・・・Why, if we have these separate systems, is it that the brain has a sense of unity?・・・
 The brain’s cacophony of competing voices feels coherent because some module or network somewhere in the left hemisphere is providing a running narration. ・・・


 The onset of wrinkles, muscle wasting and cataracts has been delayed and even eliminated in mice, say researchers in the US.
 It was done by "flushing out" retired cells that had stopped dividing. They accumulate naturally with age.・・・


 ・・・autistic children have about 67% more nerve cells in a part of the brain known as the prefrontal cortex than children without autism. The prefrontal cortex is involved in processing social skills, communication, cognitive functions and language ― all areas in which autistic children often show abnormal development.・・・
 Equally significant is the fact that the excess of neurons in the prefrontal cortex aren't formed after birth, but during early development, in utero. That suggests that the changes responsible for autism are occurring much earlier than scientists had thought.・・・


 ・・・ activity first builds up in the genital area of the sensory cortex(感覚皮質), a response to being touched in that region. Activity then spreads to the limbic((大脳)辺縁系の) system, a collection of brain structures involved in emotions and long-term memory.
 As the orgasm arrives, activity shoots up in two parts of the brain called the cerebellum(小脳) and the frontal cortex(前頭皮質), perhaps because of greater muscle tension. During orgasm, activity reaches a peak in the hypothalamus(視床下部) , which releases a chemical called oxytocin that causes pleasurable sensations and stimulates the uterus to contract. Activity also peaks in the nucleus accumbens(側坐核) , an area linked to reward and pleasure.
 After orgasm, the activity in all these regions gradually calms down.・・・

 ・・・around half a person's risk of suicide is due to genetic factors. ・・・



 Women who were repeatedly sexually abused as girls have a 62 percent higher risk of heart problems later in life compared with women who were not abused・・・
 Much of the increased risk was related to coping strategies among abuse survivors such as overeating, alcohol use and smoking.・・・
 Physical abuse also took a toll. Women who had been beaten in their youth had a 45 percent higher risk of heart trouble.・・・

 ・・・countries where more women take oral contraception have higher rates of prostate cancer and prostate cancer deaths.・・・
  it may have to do with environmental exposure: estrogen in birth control pills may be released in urine and end up in the water supply.・・・

 ・・・Frequent gamers had more gray matter in a portion of the brain known as the left ventral striatum(左腹側線条体) , which affects the interplay of emotions and behavior. Previous research identified striatal function as a "core candidate promoting addictive behavior,・・・

 People with high IQs are more likely to smoke marijuana and take other illegal drugs, compared with those who score lower on intelligence tests・・・
 People with high IQs are more likely to score high on personality scales of openness to experience," says White. "They may be more willing to experiment and seek out novel experiences.・・・
 ・・・earlier research has found a connection between high IQ and greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence.・・・


 日本人が発見した「たこつぼ症候群(Broken heart syndrome)」
 ・・・ Women are a lot more likely to suffer a broken heart than men・・・
 Broken heart syndrome can happen in response to shocking or suddenly emotional events -- both positive ones like winning the lottery, or negative ones like a car accident or the unexpected death of a loved one. A flood of stress hormones and adrenaline causes part of the heart to enlarge temporarily and triggers symptoms that can look like heart attack: chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heart rhythm. The difference is that the factors that would normally cause heart attack, such as a blocked artery, aren't present.
 Most sufferers usually recover within a week or two, but in rare cases ― about 1% ― people die of the condition.・・・

 ・・・The genetic variation affects the receptor for oxytocin, often referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle chemical" because it plays a role in social bonding, trust, empathy and generosity. Levels of oxytocin increase during orgasm and childbirth, and it helps the formation of bonds between friends, lovers, and parents and children.・・・
 ・・・people with two G variants of the gene are more empathetic and "prosocial," showing more compassion, cooperation and positive emotion. In contrast, those with the at least one A version of the gene tend to be less empathetic, may have worse mental health and are more likely to be autistic.・・・
 Our biological makeup only accounts for less than half of our traits, and this one genetic variation interacts with many other genes, experiences, societal structure, etc."・・・

 ・・・The scans showed that all the volunteers’ brains reacted the same way to negative and neutral images, with negative pictures causing more arousal in the amygdala than neutral ones.
 The most striking result was in the happiest volunteers, who had scored five and above on a seven-point happiness test. When they saw positive images, the activity in their amygdalas rose much higher than it did in the less happy people.・・・

 Perversions are all really, symbolically speaking, attacks against the [pregnant] woman's body・・・ A fecund woman represents an erected penis, sperm flowing.・・・
 ・・・while men tend to project their violence and perversions outwards, on to other people, "in women it is usually against themselves, either against their bodies", expressed in eating disorders, for instance, "or against objects they see as their own creations: their babies"・・・
 While male exhibitionists tend to compulsively expose themselves to people they don't know, "women suffer from this compulsion only with other women to whom they feel a close attachment"・・・


 ・・・<As for> more than 2,000 people who as part of a youth talent search scored in the top 1 percent on the SAT by the age of 13・・・ (Scores on the SAT correlate so highly with I.Q. that the psychologist Howard Gardner described it as a “thinly disguised” intelligence test.) ・・・<t>he remarkable finding・・・is that, compared with the participants who were “only” in the 99.1 percentile for intellectual ability at age 12, those who were in the 99.9 percentile -- the profoundly gifted -- were between three and five times more likely to go on to earn a doctorate, secure a patent, publish an article in a scientific journal or publish a literary work. A high level of intellectual ability gives you an enormous real-world advantage. ・・・


 ・・・Cultivating an “attitude of gratitude” has been linked to better health, sounder sleep, less anxiety and depression, higher long-term satisfaction with life and kinder behavior toward others, including romantic partners. ・・・





 ・・・When the initial task was easy and willpower wasn’t required, people did well on the tricky cognitive task, making few mistakes. But when the initial task was hard and involved self-control, people who believed that willpower was limited made almost twice as many mistakes on the tricky cognitive task as did the group that performed the initial easy task. This finding replicates many studies・・・that have been interpreted as evidence that willpower is limited and easily depleted. But, strikingly, we found that people who believed that willpower was not limited continued to perform well on the second task, making few mistakes, even after facing the difficult initial task. They were not “depleted” and kept on doing well.
 You may contend that these results show only that some people just happen to have more willpower -- and know that they do. But on the contrary, we found that anyone can be prompted to think that willpower is not so limited.・・・
 To be sure, willpower is not completely unlimited. Food and rest are of course necessary for functioning, and many struggles that people face are quite difficult.・・・





 ・・・Earlier studies have shown that under high stress, the brain tends to shut off the cortical networks involved in creativity, contemplation, planning and thinking abstractly. While that sounds like a glitch, it's actually a benefit ― at least when you are facing physical threats. Taking time to consider your options is not advisable while being chased by a tiger or facing enemy fire.
 As the authors of a new study in Science put it, acute stress "sharpens our senses, creates a state of fearful arousal and strengthens our memories of stressful experiences but impairs our capacity for slow deliberation."・・・


 ・・・The same enterprising mind that allows creative people to consider new possibilities, generate original ideas, and resolve conflicts innovatively may be what also helps them justify their own dishonest behavior・・・<such as> cheat<ing>・・・

 ・・・physical activity will・・・improve cognitive health.”


 ・・・people who reported frequent masturbation scored lower on measures of health and well-being than those who engaged in frequent ・・・penile-vaginal intercourse・・・PVI. ・・・
 The happiest women in the study were those who had the most PVI, but this antidepressant effect evaporated if they’d used condoms. Students who hadn’t engaged in PVI, or said they used condoms, reported more suicide attempts than those who said they never used condoms during sex.・・・
 ・・・it’s theoretically possible that semen really does have antidepressant properties, since it’s loaded with hormones, neurotransmitters and other chemicals, including testosterone, prostaglandins, and hormones that stimulate ovulation.・・・



 ・・・ Names can have profound and lasting implications over the course of a person's life.・・・
 ・・・teachers treat kids with low-status names differently: they're more likely to be referred for special education, less likely to be recognized as gifted and they perform poorer on tests・・・
 ・・・those with more linguistically feminine names were more likely to shy away from math and science and stick with humanities classes compared to their siblings with linguistically androgynous names.・・・


 Spritz oxytocin up people's noses (when they don't know if they are getting the hormone or a placebo) and they become more trusting and forgiving. In economic games requiring players to choose whether to cooperate or to be cutthroat, oxytocin promotes cooperation. (And just to show that this is about sociality, oxytocin had no effect on subjects who thought they were playing with a computer instead of a human partner.)
 Subjects watching video clips of a supposed politician trusted the person more when given oxytocin. The hormone has been found to make people more charitable -- and not just to individuals but to charitable institutions, a more emotionally abstract way of giving money. Scary or angry faces are seen as less so by people under the influence of oxytocin, and the amygdala -- a part of the brain that responds to cues that evoke anger or fear ― becomes less responsive.・・・
 In studies on males (who might be said to be genetically impaired in pro-social behavior by virtue of their Y chromosomes), oxytocin was found to increase their capacity for trust, their skill at reading facial expressions and their tendency to make eye contact. And oxytocin fosters sociality in people with autism.・・・
 Oxytocin, this research seemed to suggest, makes people feel warmer and fuzzier to those they consider "us." But it makes people crappier to the "thems."・・・
 ・・・the findings also demonstrate the even greater power of social context・・・





 出産後冷める愛 夫しだいで保つ



 ・・・After four decades of largely unfulfilled hopes--Dec. 23 marks 40 years since President Nixon declared war on cancer--scientists have hit on a potential cure that few thought possible a few years ago: vaccines. If they succeed, cancer vaccines would revolutionize treatment. They could spell the end of chemotherapy and radiation, which can have horrific side effects, ・・・
 Harnessing the immune system is completely counter to how cancer is now treated, largely by chemotherapy and radiation. Both can weaken the immune system, which is why some alternative practitioners advise against them. ・・・
 Would-be cancer cures have come and gone, and vaccines could fail to live up to our hopes. In many studies, patients like Shari Baker and Bert Williams are exceptions, responding almost miraculously while others derive little or no benefit. The reasons for that difference are under intense study. Some patients are too sick or weak to mount a strong immune response; this is why flu vaccines fail to protect some seniors. Also, immune therapy can take months to work, allowing tumors to grow and metastasize. And if the antigen the vaccine targets is also on healthy cells, killer T cells might go after them, too, causing autoimmune disease.・・・


 ・・・low to moderate amounts of stress are necessary for healthy growth. What’s harmful is large doses of uncontrollable stress ― experiencing a natural disaster, for instance, or living in extreme poverty ― particularly in early life. Also harmful, it turns out, is having experienced no stress at all.・・・


 ・・・Those with prosopagnosia(相貌失認) , also known as face blindness, can see perfectly well, but their brains are unable to piece together the information needed to understand that a collection of features represents an individual’s face. ・・・
 ・・・a condition parallel to prosopagnosia, called phonagnosia(人声失認(?)), similarly leaves a person unable to distinguish a familiar voice from an unfamiliar one.・・・
 ・・・regions of the brain already associated with facial recognition, like the fusiform(紡錘状) face area in the occipital lobe(後頭葉) , are directly linked to regions responsible for voice recognition, mostly in the temporal lobe(側頭葉) .・・・


 How well children perform in the classroom could be linked to how physically active they are・・・
 Exercise may help by increasing blood and oxygen flow to the brain・・・
 Children who learn to participate in sport also learn to obey rules. This may mean they are more disciplined and able to concentrate・・・
 Physical activity could also reduce stress and improve mood, making children more likely to behave in the classroom.・・・


 ・・・California is one of two states in which porn is legal (the other is, only recently, New Hampshire・・・
 Female porn stars are engaged in the act for an average of 30 to 55 minutes during a shoot, Hartley explains. Even for the pros, that’s a long time to keep the juices flowing. When you add condoms to the mix, it’s a “friction burn in the wrong place,” as Hartley puts it, one that can cause micro-tears in the vaginal wall and leave a woman more susceptible to diseases.・・・










 ・・・on average, girls, including those from single-sex schools, were 16 percent less likely than boys to opt for the lottery. However, significantly, they found that girls in coed schools were 36 percent less likely to select the lottery than their male peers.・・・
 ・・・girls attending single-sex schools were as likely as boys to enter the real-stakes gamble and that they were also willing to invest more in a hypothetical risky investment than coed females and all males.
The findings have important implications for the emerging field of experimental economics, which examines why there is an under-representation of women in the City, London’s financial district.・・・


 ・・・Satoshi Kanazawa・・・found the・・・ratings of physical attractiveness and scores on standard intelligence tests・・・were related: In the U.K., for example, attractive children have an additional 12.4 points of IQ, on average. The relationship held even when he controlled for family background, race, and body size.・・・
 Kanazawa thinks it's the former, arguing that intelligent men have tended to rise to the top of the social hierarchy and select beautiful women as their mates. Their offspring, contra George Bernard Shaw's supposed quip, would have had both traits together.
 Another theory holds that certain environmental factors in the womb or just after birth can produce both facial disfigurements and cognitive impairments on one side, or facial symmetry and high intelligence on the other. A third suggests that attractive children are treated better, and receive more attention from their caretakers and teachers, which helps to nurture a sharper mind. It's also possible that smart people are better able to take care of themselves and their looks.・・・
 ・・・if you're at the low end of the spectrum for looks, you're more likely than anyone else to be at one extreme end for IQ (either very dumb or very smart). If that's the case, then it might provide another reason why Sartre and Socrates types stick out in our minds. ・・・


 ・・・anxiety disorders(不安障害) now affect 18 percent of the adult population of the United States, or about 40 million people. By comparison, mood disorders -- depression and bipolar illness, primarily -- affect 9.5 percent. That makes anxiety the most common psychiatric complaint by a wide margin, and one for which we are increasingly well-medicated.・・・
  The anti-anxiety drug alprazolam -- better known by its brand name, Xanax -- was the top psychiatric drug on the list, clocking in at 46.3 million prescriptions in 2010.・・・







 The end of the first trimester(三ヵ月期) appears to be the period when alcohol can wreak the most havoc on fetal development, causing physical deformities as well as behavioral and cognitive symptoms,・・・
 So even women who may not be planning to become pregnant should be aware of the risks of alcohol on developing fetuses.・・・


 ・・・Scientists generally define fear as a negative emotional state triggered by the presence of a stimulus (the snake) that has the potential to cause harm, and anxiety as a negative emotional state in which the threat is not present but anticipated. ・・・
  ・・・the capacity to fear (in the sense of detecting and responding to danger) is pretty universal among animals. But anxiety ― an experience of uncertainty ― is a different matter. It depends on the ability to anticipate, a capacity that is also present in some other animals, but that is especially well developed in humans. We can project ourselves into the future like no other creature.・・・
  While fear plays a key role in some anxiety disorders (phobia, post-traumatic stress), it takes a back seat in others (generalized anxiety).・・・


 It has long been known that certain pain-related conditions, like fibromyalgia, migraine and irritable bowel syndrome, are more common in women than in men. And chronic pain after childbirth is surprisingly common; the Institute of Medicine recently found that 18 percent of women who have Caesarean deliveries and 10 percent who have vaginal deliveries report still being in pain a year later.
 But new research from Stanford University suggests that even when men and women have the same condition — whether it’s a back problem, arthritis or a sinus infection — women appear to suffer more from the pain.・・・
 ・・・sex hormones may play a role in pain response. In fact, some of the gender differences, particularly regarding headache and abdominal pain, begin to diminish after women reach menopause.・・・


 ・・・Disgust・・・protects human beings from disease and parasites, and affects almost every aspect of human relations, from romance to politics.・・・



 ・・・Working 11 or more hours a day was associated with a 2.3- to 2.5-fold increased risk of having a major depressive episode compared with those who worked a standard seven- to eight-hour day. ・・・

 It's not how much you practice but whether you're quick to fix your errors that leads to mastery・・・


 ・・・polygynous societies create large numbers of unmarried men, whose presence is correlated with increased rates of rape, theft, murder, and substance abuse. ・・・the problem with unmarried men appears to come primarily from their lack of investment in family life and in children. Young men without futures tend to engage in riskier behaviors because they have less to lose. And, too, they may engage in certain crimes to get wives—stealing to amass enough wealth to attract women, or kidnapping other men’s wives.・・・
 ・・・polygyny is less about sex than it is about power. Rich old guys with lots of wives win twice: They have more women to bear them babies and do household work, and they also gain an advantage over other men. After all, in such societies a young man in want of a wife cannot simply woo her. There is too much competition, and he probably has too little to offer. So he winds up having to do work for a more powerful, polygynous man, bringing him gifts and tributes, in hopes of someday being rewarded with one of that man’s many daughters.・・・
 ・・・historically, polygamy has proved to be yet another setup that screws the XX set. Because there are never enough of them to go around, they wind up being married off younger. Brothers and fathers, realizing how valuable their female relations are, tend to control them more. And, as one would expect, polygynous households foster jealousy and conflict among co-wives. ・・・
 ・・・the children of monogamous households tend to do better than those from polygynous households in the same communities. Why? Some scholars suspect that polygyny may discourage paternal investment. Men with lots of children and wives are spread too thin, and to make things worse, they’re compiling resources to attract their next wives instead of using it on their existing families.・・・

 ・・・A person who goes through experiences like that and does not get depressed has a measure of what in the psychiatric trade is known as "resilience".・・・

 ・・・Conservatives tend to concentrate more on images considered to be negative, while liberals' eyes tend to linger on positive images・・・

 Women 'better at parking' than men・・・


 「第一次性革命はあったのか」シリーズ(コラム#5262、5264、5266、5268)(未公開)で紹介した、ダボイワラがその新著の中で言うところの、イギリスでの18世紀の第一次性革命の背景として、この新著の新書評子が、ダボイワラ自身が言及している、米国の性科学者のトマス・ラカー(Thomas Laqueur)による最近の説・・女性が男性より弱い身体を持っているとか、女性はオーガスム抜きでは妊娠しないので女性は色欲が強いといった謬見が、医学の発達によって否定されたことが、エリートの間での女性観、ひいてはセックス観を変えたという説・・だけで十分ではないか、と指摘している。↓
 ・・・Thomas Laqueur. Laqueur’s is the big name in the recent writing on the history of sex. He argued in 1991 that practically all the differences between past and present sex outlined above have their explanation in contemporary medical understandings of the body. Because doctors thought at first that female bodies were simply weaker versions of male bodies, says Laqueur, they also, for example, thought that women’s orgasms were essential for conception, hence the belief that women were ravenously lusty.・・・

 Most of us consider ourselves to be objective, consistent people who make decisions that reflect our core principles, no matter what the situation.・・・
 ・・・people are more likely to marry someone who lives in the same neighborhood than someone from farther away.
 And the idea that women are more nurturing and less aggressive by nature? An experiment that allowed women to anonymously blow their opponents away during video games showed that they were just as trigger-happy as the male participants. Our perceptions, both of ourselves and of the actions of others, are heavily influenced by context. ・・・


 ・・・Willpower・・・is one of the most important predictors of success in life.・・・
 Like a muscle, it can get tired if you overuse it.・・・
 The immune system also dips into the same pot, which is big, but finite・・・
 So best avoid trying to do too many things involving mental effort at the same time, or if you're ill. As with a muscle, though, you can train your willpower.
 Even small, day-to-day acts of willpower such as maintaining good posture, speaking in complete sentences or using a computer mouse with the other hand, can pay off by reinforcing longer-term self-control in completely unrelated activities・・・
 The final way in which willpower resembles a mental "muscle" is that when its strength is depleted, it can be revived with glucose. Getting a decent night's sleep and eating well -- good, slow-burning fuel -- is important in the exercise of willpower, but in times of dire need a quick shot of sugar can, according to Baumeister's lab tests, make all the difference.・・・


 ・・・countries that divided pupils into ability groups at an early age tended to have higher numbers of school drop-outs and lower levels of achievement.・・・
  ・・・most experienced and capable teachers often taught pupils in the highest sets.
 Streaming by ability "exacerbates inequities" because immigrants and pupils from low-income families are more likely to be placed in low-ability groups・・・
 The UK and the US had the joint highest proportion of pupils in schools that divide according to ability at 99% each. Countries, such as Finland, that are well-known for their high-performing education systems, had a far lower proportion – 58%.
 Dividing pupils into ability groups was commonplace in the UK in the 1940s and early 1950s. By the early 1990s it had virtually disappeared because studies had shown it had no effect on overall attainment. It is gradually being re-introduced into UK schools.・・・


 ・・・the posture and behaviors associated with depression are almost identical to the submission signals used by low status animals in hierarchical species. Bullying, meanwhile, looks similar to some of the dominance behaviors of high-ranking animals.
 Therefore,・・・children with depression are not only less likable to others, but they are also visibly marked as having low status. That attracts the attention of bullies who like to prey on weaker victims who won’t fight back. It also leads other children who might previously have liked them, or at least tolerated them, to become afraid to associate with them too, because they don’t want to attract the bullies’ attention themselves and because being linked with low-status peers may reduce their own social standing.・・・


 ・・・Being sexually or emotionally abused as a child・・・volumes of three important areas of the hippocampus were reduced by up to 6.5%・・・are twice as likely to have recurrent episodes of depression in adulthood. These individuals are also less likely to respond well to psychological or drug-based treatments.・・・

 ・・・crucial combination of traits in people who flourished over the years — the ones who reported the best health, most friends, fewest emotional problems and greatest satisfaction with life. ・・・ They scored high in novelty-seeking as well in persistence and “self-transcendence<・・i.e.> to feel a connection to nature and humanity and the universe・・・


 ・・・In people with depression, brain regions appear to be overly connected to one another・・・ In turn, this excessive connectivity reduces the flexibility the brain needs to function properly.
“Depression is a whole brain disease・・・It’s not something that affects just one brain region, but that the entire organ doesn’t appear to be functioning very well.”・・・

 Women who have children later in life may face a higher risk of depression than younger mothers・・・a fivefold increase in risk among women aged 40 to 44, compared with those in the 35 to 39-year-old group・・・



 It turns out plastic surgery really does make you look younger, one study has found ― on average, in the case of one Canadian doctor’s patients, 7.2 years younger.・・・






 ・・・there is no gender split; men and women are equally likely to be asexual. However, asexual men are much more likely to masturbate than asexual women; as likely, it would seem, as men with "normal" sex drives, suggesting that they are responding to a physical imperative. When Brotto conducted an experiment to measure the vaginal reactions of female participants to visual sexual stimulus, the physical reactions among asexual women were the same as that of women who report an otherwise "normal" sex drive. Brotto also says there is nothing to suggest that asexual people are any more or less likely to have suffered childhood abuse than anyone else.・・・
 ・・・a "fraternal birth effect" seemed to be a factor: asexuals are more likely to have older brothers. His findings have also established that "asexuals, like gay people, are more likely to be left-handed".・・・


 Sleeping pills prescribed for insomnia are associated with more than a fourfold risk of death・・・
 ・・・there are many ways in which sleeping pills might shorten life. Such medication has been shown to increase depression, which can trigger suicide. They also interfere with motor and cognitive skills, which makes driving dangerous, and can cause sleep apnoea, which results in disturbed sleep and can lead to heart problems.
 Some people taking the pills sleepwalk, which can be hazardous, and eat at night, "resulting in poor diet and obesity", says the paper.
In the study, people on sleeping pills were more likely to have oesophageal problems and peptic ulcers. They were more likely to be diagnosed with lymphomas, lung, colon and prostate cancers even than smokers.・・・





コラム#1059(2006.1.25)<on the job training・実学・学問(その1)>
コラム#1060(2006.1.26)<on the job training・実学・学問(その2)>
コラム#1061(2006.1.26)<on the job training・実学・学問(その3)>
コラム#1062(2006.1.27)<on the job training・実学・学問(その4)>
コラム#1063(2006.1.28)<on the job training・実学・学問(その5)>
コラム#1064(2006.1.29)<on the job training・実学・学問(その6)>




























 ・・・relationship satisfaction has a lot to do with the way partners are able to read and empathize with each other’s emotions. For women, that applies more to their negative emotions than their positive ones: women are happy when their boyfriend or partner understands they’re upset.
 For men, it’s somewhat simpler — they’re happy when their partner is happy. Men report more relationship satisfaction when they know their woman is happy, and not when they know she’s upset or angry.・・・


 ・・・about 9.3% of the deaths among the men and 7.6% of the deaths among the women in the study could have been avoided if the participants ate 42 g of red meat a day, or less・・・




 ・・・Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.・・・
 ・・・there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.
 Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles・・・ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.・・・
 The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be・・・a heightened ability to monitor the environment.・・・

 ・・・when subjects in their laboratory read a metaphor involving texture, the sensory cortex, responsible for perceiving texture through touch, became active. ・・・
 The brain, it seems, does not make much of a distinction between reading about an experience and encountering it in real life; in each case, the same neurological regions are stimulated. ・・・
  Indeed, in one respect novels go beyond simulating reality to give readers an experience unavailable off the page: the opportunity to enter fully into other people’s thoughts and feelings.・・・
 ・・・there was substantial overlap in the brain networks used to understand stories and the networks used to navigate interactions with other individuals — in particular, interactions in which we’re trying to figure out the thoughts and feelings of others. ・・・
 ・・・individuals who frequently read fiction seem to be better able to understand other people, empathize with them and see the world from their perspective. This relationship persisted even after the researchers accounted for the possibility that more empathetic individuals might prefer reading novels. ・・・


 Up to 15% of women apparently experience orgasm as a fringe benefit of physical exertion.・・・
 The catalyst seems to be the exertion itself, with abdominal exercises appearing to trigger the reaction in 51% of respondents.・・・


 ・・・Women Like Child Care More Than Men・・・
 Women with high levels of testosterone, for instance, often show less interest in babies, while a father’s testosterone levels are known to drop when a new baby arrives, ostensibly a biological mechanism to encourage bonding with the infant.・・・


 ・・・ the music you hear at five or six seeps into you forever, whether you like it or not. I have no scientific evidence to back this up・・・

 ・・・If you’re in a healthy relationship, holding your partner’s hand is enough to subdue your blood pressure, ease your response to stress, improve your health and soften physical pain.・・・
 A happy marriage relieves stress and makes one feel as safe as an adored baby.・・・

 ・・・science is confirming that altered states of consciousness -- whether induced by drugs, alcohol, sleepiness, travel or anything else that removes us from our usual way of seeing the world -- do indeed improve creative thought. The inhibition of what researchers call executive functioning, which includes focus and planning ? abilities that decline when we’re under the influence -- may be what lets us generate new ideas and innovative solutions, instead of remaining fixed on the task at hand.・・・
 ・・・blood alcohol content of 0.075 (just under the legal limit)・・・
 Being drunk improved performance by about 30%.
 Moreover, the drunk men solved the problems much more intuitively than the sober ones did・・・
 If less executive function is linked to more creativity, this may also help explain why artists, writers and musicians appear to be more vulnerable to addiction.・・・
 ・・・older people with reductions in attentional control are better at tests that examine creative thought, as are those with brain damage that interferes with attention.
 The findings raise the question of whether drugs that increase attention and focus -- most notably, stimulants like Ritalin and amphetamines that are used to treat ADHD -- would have the opposite effect on creative thinking.・・・
 For example, some research has found that while stimulants can improve test performance for those who are less intelligent, for the smartest folks, the medications can have the opposite effect.・・・






 When Do Babies Stop Being So Darned Cute? ・・・Age 4 -- That’s the age at which “certain crucial infantile facial cues” -- the researchers are talking about babies’ big eyes and big heads in relation to their smallish noses and mouths -- are no longer very noticeable・・・



 ・・・ Now most researchers seem to agree on one thing: Breast budding in girls is starting earlier. The debate has shifted to what this means. Puberty, in girls, involves three events: the growth of breasts, the growth of pubic hair and a first period. Typically the changes unfold in that order, and the process takes about two years. But the data show a confounding pattern. While studies have shown that the average age of breast budding has fallen significantly since the 1970s, the average age of first period, or menarche, has remained fairly constant, dropping to only 12.5 from 12.8 years. Why would puberty be starting earlier yet ending more or less at the same time? ・・・

 ・・・there is “strong circumstantial and psychosexual evidence” that Simpson was intersexual(中性), which refers to a broad spectrum of sexual development disorders. She offers this as a possible explanation for the fact that Simpson never bore any children and flirted(男漁りをする) in an unusually aggressive way. Furthermore, Sebba gives credence to speculation that the couple’s passion was driven by Simpson’s sexual prowess, which may have included a repertoire of tricks acquired during her years in China.・・・


 ・・・people with either・・・mental or substance-use disorders(物質使用障害)・・・ have shorter life expectancies than most Americans; a 2006 study put the difference at 25 years.・・・


 ・・・Whereas the eureka moment will most likely come when you are happily day-dreaming in a grassy meadow, the drive to perfect your creation is strongest when you are depressed and undistracted.・・・
 Friedrich Nietzsche, as Lehrer acknowledges, traced this distinction back to ancient Greece: the moment of inspiration he associated with Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy; whereas the impulse to impose a perfect order Nietzsche attributed to Apollo, god of knowledge, music and poetry.・・・


 ネコが人を元気にする科学的な根拠 寄生虫のなせる技?・・・

 ・・・There’s now a large body of evidence showing that those who opt for the political left and those who opt for the political right tend to process information in divergent ways and to differ on any number of psychological traits.・・・
 ・・・liberals tend to be the kind of people who want to try new things, including new music, books, restaurants and vacation spots ― and new ideas.・・・
 Conservatives, in contrast, tend to be less open ― less exploratory, less in need of change ― and more “conscientious,” a trait that indicates they appreciate order and structure in their lives. ・・・


 ・・・It is intriguing that huge numbers of women are eagerly consuming myriad and disparate fantasies of submission at a moment when women are ascendant in the workplace・・・
 ・・・between 31 percent and 57 percent of women entertain fantasies where they are forced to have sex. ・・・
 ・・・It may be that power is not always that comfortable, even for those of us who grew up in it; it may be that equality is something we want only sometimes and in some places and in some arenas; it may be that power and all of its imperatives can be boring.・・・
 ・・・it is not as much guilt over sex but rather something more basically liberating about being overcome or overpowered. ・・・



 ・・・men tend to choose a woman the same age as themselves - which the researchers presumed to be their girlfriend or wife - as a best friend much later in life than women do, and for a much shorter time. This occurs when they are in their early-30s, possibly during courtship, and stops after seven years or so.
 Women, however, choose a man of a similar age to be their best friend from the age of 20. He remains for about 15 years, after which time he's replaced by a daughter.
 ・・・a woman's social world is intensely focussed on one individual and will shift as a result of reproductive interests from being the mate to children and grandchildren.・・・
 ・・・the data suggests that "at root the important relationships are those between women and not those between men".・・・
 Many anthropologists argue that most human societies are patriarchal on the basis that in most communities men stay where they are born whereas the wives move.
 But・・・this only occurs in agriculturally based societies.
 "If you look at hunter-gatherers and you look at modern humans in modern post-industrial societies, we are much more matriarchal.・・・




 ・・・far less blood being sent to the primary visual cortex while watching the most explicit porn--the opposite of what usually happens while watching video.・・・
 Probably that our brain recognizes the erotic trajectory of what we’re seeing, knows what comes next, and may be sending blood to other parts of the body rather than the brain’s visual processing area.・・・


 Scientists have revealed one of the reasons why some folks are less religious than others: They think more analytically, rather than going with their gut. And thinking analytically can cause religious belief to wane -- for skeptics and true believers alike.・・・

 ・・・Of the 2,056 women aged 18-60 who participated in the survey, 52.5 percent claimed to have used a vibrator.・・・
 Alabama today is the only state in the U.S. to outlaw the sale of sex toys, including vibrators.・・・


 ・・・After a quick assessment, the intake doctor declared that she had bipolar disorder, committed her to a psychiatric ward and started her on dangerous psychiatric medication. From my conversations with this woman, I’d say she was responding to severe exhaustion and alarm, not suffering from mental illness.・・・
 About half of all Americans get a psychiatric diagnosis in their lifetimes. Receiving any of the 374 psychiatric labels -- from nicotine dependence disorder to schizophrenia -- can cost anyone their health insurance, job, custody of their children, or right to make their own medical and legal decisions. And if patients take psychiatric drugs, they risk developing physical disorders such as diabetes, heart problems, weight gain and other serious conditions. In light of the subjectivity of these diagnoses and the harm they can cause, we should be extremely skeptical of them.・・・
 I now believe that the DSM<(=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)> should be thrown out.・・・



 前頭側頭型認知症(frontotemporal dementia)という言葉を覚えたぞ。
 ・・・frontotemporal dementia -- a little-known, poorly understood and frequently misdiagnosed group of brain diseases that eat away at personality and language. Although it was first recognized more than 100 years ago, there is still no cure or treatment, and patients survive an average of only eight years after the diagnosis. ・・・
 This disease is different from Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia. But it is perhaps even more devastating, because it strikes younger people, progresses faster and, unlike Alzheimer’s, does not attack memory at first but begins with silence, apathy or bizarre personality changes. It is thought to afflict at least 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States. ・・・

 ・・・even though as many as 25 million people per month seek matches through online dating services, these individuals are no more likely to find their soul mates than people who hook up with partners through conventional methods--singles bars, blind dates, friends of friends.・・・










 ・・・up to 90% of young adults in major East Asian countries, including China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, are nearsighted. The overall rate of myopia in the U.K., by contrast, is about 20% to 30%.・・・
 Particularly concerning is that about 10% to 20% of Asian schoolchildren suffer from high myopia, which puts them at higher risk of more serious vision problems, including blindness, in adulthood. ・・・
 ・・・the culprit is the massive pressure on Asian children to succeed in school, which leads to too many hours hunched over books indoors and not nearly enough exposure to natural sunlight. Indeed, East Asian countries with high myopia rates are those that dominate international rankings of educational performance・・・
 ・・・bright outdoor light would stimulate the release of the retinal transmitter dopamine, which is known to be able to block the axial growth of the eye, which is the structural basis of myopia -- the eye simply grows too big.・・・


 Middle-aged men and women suffering from depression may be more susceptible to dementia down the line・・・
 compared with people who had never been depressed, those who had depressive symptoms in middle age (but not later in life) were about 20% more likely to develop dementia later on. People who became depressed in later life were even worse off: they were 70% more likely to develop dementia than their non-depressed peers.
 Further, people with late-life depression were twice as likely to have Alzheimer’s disease as those who were depression-free, and those with both midlife and late-life depressive symptoms had more than a three-fold increase in vascular dementia risk.・・・

 One in six cancers - two million a year globally - are caused by largely treatable or preventable infections・・・


 ・・・mothers who don’t work outside the home were far more likely to be depressed, with 28 percent reporting depression, compared with 17 percent of working mothers, and also 17 percent of working women who don’t have children.・・・
 There is ample evidence that lower education levels increase the chances of depression, particularly among women. And the relationship between depression and low income is even clearer.・・・


 ・・・ what interests newborn babies the most are human faces, movements and voices. Babies are born able to distinguish between humans and objects, and thus able to form a bond with a mothering figure. Out of this bond comes the skill of empathy. However, when babies have no opportunity to form this bond they do not develop the skill of empathy. Some of these babies fail to develop a conscience and later in life are called psychopaths.・・・

 ・・・the children who were placed in foster care developed normally, with appropriate head sizes, and less distress, better attentional skills and a 9-point higher IQ on average, compared with children sent to orphanages. Follow-up studies found that the orphanage-raised group was more than twice as likely to develop mental illness, compared with those who’d been in foster care. More than 50% of the orphanage group was diagnosed with at least one mental illness.・・・


 ・・・If I encounter something many times, and it hasn't eaten me yet, then I'm safe. Familiarity is a safety signal. That's why we like what we know.・・・
 The phenomenon is called "priming": We aren't aware that we have perceived a certain stimulus, but it can be proved that we still respond to it.・・・
 ・・・ You just have to make sure that the right picture is hanging above the cash box. If a pair of eyes is looking back at them from the wall, people will contribute twice as much as they do when the picture shows flowers. People who feel observed behave more morally.・・・
 An attractive woman in an ad automatically directs your attention to the name of the product. When you encounter it in the shop later on, it will already seem familiar to you.・・・
 ・・・anything that reminds people of their mortality makes them more obedient.・・・
 Any symbol that is associated with money, even if it's just dollar signs as a screensaver, ensures that people will pay more attention to their own interests than they will want to help others.・・・




 Edward O. Wilsonの本(コラム#5442以下)の書評がまた出ていた。↓
 ・・・Fire is an essential ingredient of civilization. ・・・
 As humans banded together into larger groups, protection of territory and food supplies became ever more important. The natural tendency of humans toward war is an inevitable outgrowth of this need, as is religion. The belief that war and other activities are divinely inspired and that your religious group is superior to all others plays a crucial role in maintaining culture and supporting warfare and the ability to kill "inferior" races of humans.・・・



 ・・・what would happen if only the low-ranking males in the group offered food to females in return for mating opportunities. These weaker males had less to lose by switching strategies because they wouldn't get very far through fighting anyway.
 The other key change was realizing that these low-ranking males would select faithful females.・・・
 The study also fails to address the possibility that males didn't move straight from promiscuity to monogamy but instead to an intermediate pattern of polygyny ― guarding a number of females on a long-term basis, said primatologist Bernard Chapais of the University of Montreal.
 Once polygyny was in place, it would have been much easier to move to monogamy without・・・assumptions about providing food and care・・・


 ・・・while the elderly may indeed smell different from younger people, their body odor is neither particularly strong nor particularly unpleasant.・・・







 ・・・Being a parent, especially a dad, appears to confer greater levels of happiness, positive emotion and meaning than being childless・・・
 ・・・Young parents under 26 were less happy than young non-parents, but between the ages of 26 and 62, those with kids reported greater happiness.・・・




 People who were hit or spanked as children face higher odds of mental ailments as adults, including mood and anxiety disorders and problems with alcohol and drug abuse・・・







 ・・・Republicans were 68 percent more likely than liberal Democrats to say they were “very happy” about their lives. ・・・
 ・・・most conservatives are married; most liberals are not. (The percentages are 53 percent to 33 percent,・・・
 If two people are demographically the same but one is married and the other is not, the married person will be 18 percentage points more likely to say he or she is very happy than the unmarried person.・・・
 ・・・conservatives who practice a faith outnumber religious liberals in America nearly four to one. And the link to happiness? You guessed it. Religious participants are nearly twice as likely to say they are very happy about their lives as are secularists (43 percent to 23 percent). The differences don’t depend on education, race, sex or age; the happiness difference exists even when you account for income.・・・
 Liberals may be less happy than conservatives because they are less ideologically prepared to rationalize (or explain away) the degree of inequality in society.・・・
 ・・・about 90 percent of conservatives agree that “While people may begin with different opportunities, hard work and perseverance can usually overcome those disadvantages.” Liberals ― even upper-income liberals ― are a third less likely to say this.・・・
 Correcting for income, education, age, race, family situation and religion, the happiest Americans are those who say they are either “extremely conservative” (48 percent very happy) or “extremely liberal” (35 percent). Everyone else is less happy, with the nadir at dead-center “moderate” (26 percent).・・・

 ・・・additional income doesn’t buy us any additional happiness on a typical day once we reach that comfortable standard. The magic number that defines this “comfortable standard” varies across individuals and countries, but in the United States, it seems to fall somewhere around $75,000・・・household income・・・.・・・
 ・・・people who earned $55,000 were just 9 percent more satisfied than those making $25,000.・・・
 ・・・if you insist on spending money on yourself, you should shift from buying stuff (TVs and cars) to experiences (trips and special evenings out). Our own recent research shows that in addition to buying more experiences, you’re better served in many cases by simply buying less ― and buying for others.・・・
 ・・・underindulgence ― indulging a little less than you usually do ― holds one key to getting more happiness for your money.・・・


 ・・・Loneliness doesn't just make people unhappy, research shows that it has an effect on mortality too.
 It is also associated with poor mental health and, more surprisingly, with conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dementia.・・・
 Loneliness is the difference between your desired contact with people and the contact with people you actually have,・・・
 This explains why some people with lots of friends still feel lonely. It's a subjective thing.・・・


 Dogs and cats help babies' health・・・
 The effect was stronger for dogs than for cats: Babies who lived with dogs were 31% more likely to be in good health than their counterparts who didn't, and babies with cats had a 6% advantage over those without feline family members.
 The children with pet dogs were 44% less likely to develop ear infections and 29% less likely to have used antibiotics during their first year・・・
 In cat-owning households, babies whose cats were indoors more than 16 hours a day were healthy 70.8% of the time. But in homes where the cat was inside for less than six hours a day, babies were healthy 78.2% of the time. For the sake of comparison, young children who lived in cat-free zones were healthy 66.1% of the time.・・・
  Kids with homebody canines were healthy 72.2% of the time, and that figure rose to 75.7% for children whose dogs spent fewer than six hours indoors each day. In dogless households, babies were healthy 64.8% of the time.・・・
 ・・・exposure to pets early in life can stimulate the immune system to do a better job of fighting off infection・・・


 ・・・Toxoplasma gondii. Researchers estimate that T. gondii is carried by 10% to 20% of Americans・・・
 The parasite has been linked to an increased risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in humans. A few small studies have also suggested a relationship between suicide attempts and infection with T. gondii.・・・
 ・・・researchers・・・analyze<d> T. gondii levels and the incidence of suicide attempts in more than 45,000・・・Denmark・・・women who were tracked for more than 10 years.
 Over the period covered in the study, 1% of the women tried to take their own lives. But the risk wasn't the same for everyone. Women with T. gondii infections were 53% more likely to attempt suicide than women who were not infected.・・・
 ・・・ a history of mental illness did not appear to play a major role・・・


 ・・・regular exercise ― both aerobic training like walking, as well as strength training involving weights ― helps improve memory and reduces the frequency of those momentary hiccups we call “senior moments.”・・・







 ・・・Women who worked after they were eight months pregnant had babies on average around 230g (0.5lb) lighter than those who stopped work between six and eight months.・・・
 the effect of continuing to work during the late stages of pregnancy was equal to that of smoking while pregnant. ・・・
 ・・・the effect of working during pregnancy was possibly more marked for those doing physically demanding work.
 The birth weight of babies born to mothers under the age of 24 was not affected by them continuing to work, but in older mothers the effect was more significant.・・・


 ・・・It is now generally accepted that personal experience can change our genes・・・
 ・・・some of these changes can be passed on to offspring, and the effect – although it eventually disappears after three to four generations – can have profound consequences.・・・
 ・・・genes are not "for" bodily attributes: only about 2% of the genome is literally "for" anything at all: the target is proteins not traits, and what the proteins do next depends on concerted action with other proteins. ・・・
 ・・・the 98% of the genome that doesn't make protein was dismissed as junk DNA. Some of it is now known to regulate the expression of protein-making genes; much of it is still dark matter.


 Elite athletes who travel across more than five timezones to compete, more than double their risk of illness・・・
 ・・・the different germs and allergens of a new environment affect the athletes.・・・





 ・・・Our work in parts of Malaysia and Africa has shown that in poorer environments where resources are scarce, people prefer a heavy body in a potential partner・・・
 ・・・ At the same time, the stressed men were a little less discriminating in their references than were the unstressed men: They found themselves attracted to a wider range of body shapes and sizes than did the unstressed men.・・・


 ・・・neither the size of the reward nor the probability of getting caught substantially affects the likelihood of dishonest behavior. ・・・
 cheating becomes much simpler when there are more steps between us and the dishonest act.・・・
 Dishonesty isn’t always so bad.・・・
 ・・・we quickly and easily start believing whatever comes out of our own mouths,・・・
 Mostly, small reminders of basic moral standards tend to improve behavior. ・・・
 ・・・being tired or hungry, undermine our efforts to be ethical.・・・
 We also learn that, once cheating starts, it tends to gain momentum and become contagious. That’s why we shouldn’t tolerate small indiscretions; it lowers the bar for everyone.・・・


 Being overweight is not just bad for waistlines but for brains too・・・
 Experts are not sure why this might be, but say metabolic changes such as high blood sugar and raised cholesterol are likely to be involved. ・・・

 Non-Hispanic whites get more and better-quality sleep than people of other races, studies repeatedly show. Blacks are the most likely to get shorter, more restless sleep. ・・・
 In one of two studies on the topic presented there, white participants from the Chicago area were found to get an average of 7.4 hours of sleep per night; Hispanics and Asians averaged 6.9 hours and blacks 6.8 hours. Sleep quality ― defined as ease in falling asleep and length of uninterrupted sleep ― was also higher for whites than for blacks. ・・・


 ・・・even years after they stopped practicing, young adults who had taken as little as two or three years of instrumental music training in their elementary or middle-school years showed a more robust brain response to sounds than those who had no formal musical training. ・・・
 Prior research has linked the kinds of brain signals seen in those with musical training to heightened auditory perception, better auditory-based communication skills and improved executive function. The last of these -- executive function -- encompasses such key learning skills as attention, organization, short-term memory and reasoning. So boosting that in enduring ways could arguably give the kid who took music lessons an academic edge for years after the lessons ended.・・・

 Teens who stay up late at night cramming are more likely to have academic problems the following day ― doing poorly on the test they studied for・・・


 Older men are more likely than young ones to father a child who develops autism or schizophrenia, because of random mutations that become more numerous with advancing paternal age・・・
 The age of mothers had no bearing on the risk for these disorders,・・・
 The risk of chromosomal abnormalities, like Down syndrome, increases for older mothers,・・・
  Sperm cells divide every 15 days or so, whereas egg cells are relatively stable, and continual copying inevitably leads to errors, in DNA as in life. ・・・
 ・・・collecting the sperm of young adult men and cold-storing it for later use could be a wise individual decision.・・・



 ・・・women who dated their partner for at least 182 days (!) before having sex with him reported higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, emotional support, and sexual satisfaction in the resulting relationship.・・・
 Men didn’t register a similar benefit for delaying sex.・・・




 While the image of the stressed-out executive or the politician under pressure has been firmly planted in the American mind, research increasingly suggests that it’s actually people lower down on the social scale -- not those in leadership positions at the top -- who suffer the worst health effects of stress.・・・
 ・・・their results pose something of a chicken-and-egg conundrum・・・
 ・・・it’s possible that a certain subset of psychopathic traits, such as physical and social boldness, could predispose a person to have both low cortisol and to be an effective leader・・・


 ・・・ The main impact effective supervisors have on their employees doesn’t come from motivating or supervising them per se, it comes from teaching them better work methods. About two-thirds of the productivity boost from working under a good supervisor persists even after the worker switches bosses. That leads the authors to conclude that “teaching”―imparting better methods or skills―is the biggest part of effective supervision. The good boss effect does decay over time, however, so that after six months only about 18 percent of the boost remains.
 The second finding is even more surprising: The most efficient structure is to assign the best workers to the best bosses rather than have the best bosses bring the weakest workers up to speed. ・・・


 Creativity 'closely entwined with mental illness'・・・
 If one takes the view that certain phenomena associated with the patient's illness are beneficial, it opens the way for a new approach to treatment.
 ・・・In that case, the doctor and patient must come to an agreement on what is to be treated, and at what cost. ・・・





< http://www.newsweekjapan.jp/stories/us/2012/06/pos... >



 ・・・The longer moms exclusively breast-fed their babies, the better those children did at age 3 on a vocabulary test, and at age 7 on an intelligence test,・・・


 ・・・When play seemed more important than the real world did, they felt addicted; when it enhanced their experience of reality outside the game, they felt soothed.
 Prayer works in similar ways. When people use prayer to enhance their real-word selves, they feel good. When it disconnects them from the everyday, as it did for the student, they feel bad.・・・

 しかし、<カトリック>教会の中には、LGBT(=Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transexual=レスビアン、ゲイ、両刀使い、性転換者/性同一性障害者)よりも数が多くて、はるかに無視され、公職権を奪われ、爪弾きされている集団があり、この人々は聖職者になることができない。・・・




 ・・・Exercising during learning was, in her study, significantly more effective than exercising beforehand or not exercising at all.
 But that beneficial impact probably depended on the mildness of the workout, she said. Light-intensity exercise will elicit low but noticeable levels of physiological arousal, she said, which, in turn, presumably help to prime the brain for the intake of new information and the encoding of that information into memories.
 If the exercise is more vigorous, however, it may overstimulate the body and brain, she said, monopolizing more of the brain’s attentional resources and leaving fewer for the creation of robust memories.
 This theory also helps to explain why・・・memory recall was best a day or two after exercise, by which time・・・physiological arousal would have dissipated. ・・・

 ・・・ The meditation involved listening to music and focusing just on the present moment. ・・・
 The study suggests that something is going on in the training that caused this implicit lessening of craving that results in people smoking less without even noticing it,・・・
 ・・・being aware of how cravings come and go can enhance your ability to resist them.
 That may be why meditation-based methods could be especially helpful in treating addictions, since other forms of treatment tend to focus on trying to control― rather than accept― the reality of cravings.・・・
 Traditional antismoking and addiction care also becomes defeating since it asks addicts to suppress their cravings, which generally only heightens their feelings of desire. “What that does is make that thought increase and the same is true for emotions,” Bowen says, “Trying to suppress any experience is rarely effective.”
 The same effects may not be as helpful for other mental illnesses that often lead to addictions. People with depression or past experiences of trauma, for example, may find themselves feeling increasingly anxious during meditation, no matter how much they try to focus on the moment. Or they may be plagued by intrusive thoughts, feelings and images of the past during their mindfulness exercises.・・・


 ・・・those who frequently attended religious services were 56% more likely than non-attending women to report high rates of optimism, and 27% less likely to report depression. Other studies of the same group found a 20% lower mortality rate.・・・
 ・・・religious identification and church attendance are associated with less social isolation, lower risk of substance abuse, lower rates of suicide, greater happiness and life satisfaction.・・・



≫JFKもジャクリーンもカトリックであり、不倫も離婚もご法度だろ。エセ信者夫妻め。≪( コラム#6378。太田)





・・・Forney・・・an American cartoonist・・・has bipolar disorder, so her state of mind swings wildly from curled-up-on-sofa-under-blanket, to let's-all-get-naked-and-have-sex.・・・










August 24, 1962
 ・・・[She] said that she had no religious training other than some memories of a Fundamentalist Protestantism which she had long rejected. She indicated that she was attracted to Judaism by being impressed with Jewish people that she knew, especially Mr. Miller. She said that she was aware of the great characters that the Jewish people had produced and that she had read selections from Albert Einstein’s Out Of My Later Years….She indicated that she was impressed by the rationalism of Judaism−its ethical and prophetic ideals and its concept of close family life.・・・
・・・After the divorce, Marilyn told me that she had no plans to renounce Judaism at any time. She said that it had nothing to do with the divorce and she remained on excellent terms with Arthur’s children and Arthur’s father….・・・

August 6, 1986
・・・No pressure was put on Marilyn to convert, by Arthur or me. She had negative feelings towards Christianity (her foster parents were rigid Fundamentalists) and positive feelings towards the Jewish people. She often identified with the “underdog” and at the same time had an enormous respect and admiration for intellectuals. She met Arthur while she was studying and acting in his plays as a student at the Actor’s Studio, and besides Arthur, her “hero” was Albert
Einstein…[who] represented for her the great scientist-humanist-Jew-Socialist-dissenter・・・






 ・・・ patients with a serious mental illness receive worse medical care than “normal” people.・・・
 ・・・people with a serious mental illness ― including bipolar disorder, major depression, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder ― end up with wrong diagnoses and are under-treated.
 That is a problem, because if you are given one of these diagnoses you probably also suffer from one or more chronic physical conditions: though no one quite knows why, migraines, irritable bowel syndrome and mitral valve prolapse often go hand in hand with bipolar disorder.・・・
 ・・・people who suffer from a serious mental illness and use the public health care system die 25 years earlier than those without one.
 True, suicide is a big factor, accounting for 30 to 40 percent of early deaths.・・・


 ・・・known genetic variations account for 17% to 29% of the risk for schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). And risk for one condition is often strongly linked with risk for others.・・・
 Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were most highly correlated― a finding that jibes with both earlier research and the fact that the conditions can sometimes be mistaken for each other in the clinic. The latest data suggests that seemingly disparate symptoms― patients with bipolar experience extreme mood swings, while people with schizophrenia often suffer from delusions and paranoia ― may not necessarily derive from different genes, but rather from different timing of exposures to risk factors, such as toxins or infectious disease during pregnancy, or early life trauma.・・・
 ・・・the same genes can produce different symptoms in different circumstances. ・・・
 ・・・the association between depression and schizophrenia was almost as strong as that between bipolar and unipolar depression. ・・・


 ・・・We know, for instance, that low socioeconomic status at birth is associated with a greater risk of developing schizophrenia, but the lion’s share of research into schizophrenia today is carried out by neurobiologists and geneticists, who are intent on uncovering the organic “cause” of the disease rather than looking into psychosocial factors.
 Though this research may very well bear fruit, its dominance over other forms of research, in the face of the known connection between poverty and schizophrenia, attests to a curious assumption that has settled into a comfortable obviousness: that socioeconomic status, unlike human biology, is something we cannot change “scientifically.”・・・



 ・・・At least 278 people died across <Egypt>.・・・
 A curfew and a month-long state of emergency – a restrictive law reminiscent of the hated Mubarak era – were imposed in several cities. Mohamed ElBaradei, Egypt's leading liberal politician who was appointed vice-president following Morsi's departure in an attempt to give a respectable face to the new military regime, resigned in protest at the day's events.・・・

 ・・・<Tunisia> is divided, with Islamists on one side, their opponents on the other and a deep chasm between them. And here, too, a democratically elected government led by Islamists now faces mass demonstrations calling for them to resign.
 Unlike in Egypt, however, Tunisia's army has no political ambitions. But here there is the powerful UGTT trade union, which played a decisive role during the revolution and is exerting pressure on the Islamists in the current conflict, as well.・・・

 Until just two years ago, the U.S. military barred openly gay men and lesbians from serving in the armed forces, regarding them as unfit for duty.
 In a sign of how quickly society is changing, the Pentagon said Wednesday it would grant special leave to thousands of military personnel in same-sex relationships so they can get married in the 13 states where such unions are legal ― making them eligible for the first time for full benefits provided to other military families.・・・
 It follows the Supreme Court ruling in June to strike down the Defense of Marriage Act, which had said the federal government would recognize marriages only between a man and a woman.
 Under the new policy, legally married same-sex couples can qualify for military housing allowances, healthcare, access to base shopping exchanges, extra compensation when a spouse in the military is deployed and unable to live at home, and a wide range of other benefits long available to other military families, the Pentagon said.・・・
 Same-sex marriage is still barred in 37 states, including the entire South, where many of the Pentagon's largest installations are located. Thus many gay and lesbian couples in the military will face the unusual situation of having their unions recognized by federal authorities while they are on base, but not by the states where they live.・・・
 The armed services have been at the forefront of major social movements in the past. In 1948, President Truman issued an executive order desegregating the military at a time when much of America was still racially segregated. And in the 1970s, women were first admitted to the military academies before they had broken the glass ceiling in many other areas.・・・



 国家元首(ないし国家指導者)夫妻がプロテスタントであった中華民国・・蒋介石夫妻は準白人と目された に違いありません・・に米国が容易に誑かされて、同国政府に対して積極的な反日的梃入れを続けたこと、もまた当然であった、と言わざるをえません。・・・





 <戦後の>「新しい日本」と<戦前の>「古い日本」<を>ハッキリと区分け」するなんてできるわけ がないのであって、日本人や日本の社会の在り方は、戦前、戦後を通じて、殆んど変わっていない、というのが事実です。















 <ナイが>ざっと調べたところ、ジョン・ケネディもリンドン・ジョンソンも大したことはなかった(get much)。











http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%A2%E3%83%A1%E3... の長に初めて女性が就任した。↓
 ・・・Change has come to one of America’s largest Christian denominations. Last week the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America elected its first female presiding bishop, the church’s top office. Bishop Elizabeth Eaton won in a surprise 600-287 landslide at the denomination’s triennial Churchwide Assembly in Pittsburgh. A 4-million member denomination with nearly 10,000 congregations, the ELCA is twice as large as the Episcopal Church, which elected its first female presiding bishop seven years ago.
 Like most mainline denominations, however, the ELCA faces a membership decline–accelerated by its 2009 decision to allow openly gay pastors. Since then, half a million members have left the denomination.
  I’m old enough to remember Public Service Announcements from President Eisenhower telling us all to go to the church or synagogue of our choice. ・・・
 There are people now who are spiritual and not religious. I would characterize myself as religious but not spiritual.


 ・・・those without adequate social interaction were twice as likely to die prematurely.
 The increased mortality risk is comparable to that from smoking. And loneliness is about twice as dangerous as obesity.
 Social isolation impairs immune function and boosts inflammation, which can lead to arthritis, type II diabetes, and heart disease. ・・・
 Loneliness has doubled: 40 percent of adults in two recent surveys said they were lonely, up from 20 percent in the 1980s.・・・
 In terms of human interactions, the number of people we know is not the best measure.・・・
 We just need several on whom we can depend and who depend on us in return.・・・
 In one study, Cacioppo measured brain activity during the sleep of lonely and nonlonely people. Those who were lonely were far more prone to micro awakenings, which suggest the brain is on alert for threats throughout the night, perhaps just as earlier humans would have needed to be when separated from their tribe.・・・




→私は、霊的(spiritual)である、ないし、宗教的リベラル(religious liberal)こと、と、原理主義的(fundamentalistic)であること、の双方とも宗教的(religious)であること、と考えています。


Since the 1920s, when the major New York trade presses first started offering nonsectarian religious books in significant numbers, books have been the most important conduit for spreading the “spiritual but not religious” gospel.






 ・・・A new review of the health effects of volunteering found that helping others on a regular basis ― like serving food in a soup kitchen or reading to the blind― can reduce early mortality rates by 22%, compared to those in people who don’t participate in such activities.
 The review・・・also revealed that volunteers benefit from reduced rates of depression and an increased sense of life satisfaction and well being ― doing good, it seems, made them feel good. ・・・
 “There may be a fine line between volunteering enough to experience mental health benefits (up to 10 hours a month) and spending too much time volunteering so it becomes another commitment,” the authors write. “If volunteering becomes a burden, this may lead to ‘burnout.’”・・・


 Even as racial barriers have tumbled and the nation has grown wealthier and better educated, the economic disparities separating blacks and whites remain as wide as they were when marchers assembled on the Mall in 1963.・・・
 ・・・white households had median wealth of $265,000, compared with $28,500 for black families, nearly a 10-to-1 gap. ・・・
 “The economic backdrop to the anniversary of the march is the persistence of racial disparities, but you also have black people mirroring larger trends,・・・<g>iven that the March on Washington in 1963 occurred during the golden era of the U.S. economy, the desire to get on the boat made sense because the boat was rising. But now people may be getting on the boat, but it is sinking.”・・・


 ・・・The cognitive deficit of being preoccupied with money problems was equivalent to a loss of 13 IQ points, losing an entire night's sleep or being a chronic alcoholic, according to the study. The authors say this could explain why poorer people are more likely to make mistakes or bad decisions that exacerbate their financial difficulties.・・・



 けれども「霊的だけれど宗教的ではない」現象があると、#6361<(未公開)>のコラムに引用された記事にありますから、「spiritualな人は各種宗教本をあれこれやたら読むreligiousな人であるのに対し、fundamentalisticな人は宗教 の本は基本的に聖書しか読まないreligiousな人だ」というお答えでは矛盾してしまいます。


 このセンテンスのココロは、「霊的だけれど宗教的ではない」ものも実は「リベラル的宗教(liberal religion)」(同じコラムでその少し前に引用されています)なんだよ、ということです。


 In 1899 Rudyard Kipling, the pre-eminent poet of British imperialism, addressed some stanzas to America. “Take up the white man’s burden,” he urged, “The savage wars of peace/ Fill full the mouth of famine/ And bid the sickness cease.”・・・
 “the blame of those ye better/ The hate of those ye guard.”・・・

 At the core of each child is a capacity for empathy. But according to one study, children become less generous toward others as they grow older・・・
 Research suggests that there is such a deficit and that it is rising.・・・
 nobody seems to be talking about reforms addressing what President Obama, in a 2006 speech, called an "empathy deficit."








 ・・・the life expectancy of white women who don’t graduate high school has “declined dramatically over the past 18 years.” White men who drop out of high school have lost three years in that time period. Women have lost five. They used to live to an average of 79, but now they die around 73.・・・


 We know that wealth does not always make people happy, but does it make them kinder? Studies suggest exactly the opposite. Instead of being more magnanimous, the rich are more likely to lie, cheat, steal and in general display less compassion than the poor.・・・
 Does all this mean, perhaps, that selfishness is part of what enables some people to prosper? No. Rather, research suggests that it is a result rather than a cause of financial success. Simply creating the feeling of wealth in someone can result in self-justification.・・・
 Part of the explanation, ・・・is that wealth allows people to be more independent. Those with considerable resources are less reliant on others and therefore feel less connected.・・・
  Studies suggest that actual personal distance in conversation grows with wealth as well.
 A second theory that・・・is that the wealthy are more likely to value greed as a social good ― as a driver of the economy ― and therefore to cut corners to make money. Ethics slide because making money is viewed as having social benefits as well as a personal ones.・・・
 I see a spiritual explanation as well. ・・・
 No one likes to feel that what they have achieved stems more from luck than merit. So the well-off salve their consciences by assuring themselves that it is hard work and merit that brought them success, which also leads them to conclude that it is a lack of merit that keeps others from succeeding.・・・










 The income gap between the richest 1% of Americans and the other 99% widened to a record margin in 2012, according to an analysis of tax filings.
 The top 1% of US earners collected 19.3% of household income, breaking a record previously set in 1927.・・・


 ・・・between 10% and 30% of the population is likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder at any one time.
 Mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression – there is comorbidity between the two・・・


 ・・・ In democratic countries with generally low levels of corruption, the study says, they are less likely to be corrupt and less likely to tolerate corruption than male politicos. The effect does not hold up in countries where corruption is endemic, however.・・・


 ・・・American exceptionalism has three roots: religion, rights-based self-government and the immigrant experience. ・・・
 Despite our self-conception as a pragmatic people, we tend to oscillate between extremes. ・・・
 So our diplomacy must find a middle way ― and so must we as a people ― between confidence in the American idea and arrogance in representing it to the world.・・・
 ・・・ though some suggest it is time for someone else to don the mantle of leadership, the reality is that there is no nation and no people exceptional enough to do it for so long, or so well, or with so little regard to their own aggrandizement or enrichment.
 ・・・This country’s greatest virtues stem from understanding its own flawed human normalcy, not its alleged superiority. Viewing one’s history as a resume of triumphs serves no one’s best interests – least of all those of the United States.


 ・・・Mao Zedong’s attempts to redraw China’s society and remove all trace of its ancient traditions weakened family ties as hundreds of millions of villagers were forced to work on collective farms from 1958 onward. Loyalty to Mao was supposed to trump family bonds, and the Cultural Revolution saw close relatives denounce and humiliate one another.
 Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms in the 1980s failed to fully repair the damage, with communal land parceled out and separate plots leased to individual farmers. While in neighboring India land is typically owned by the male head of the household, giving the patriarch influence over his extended family, in China the elderly and their children often have distinct plots of land.
 China’s massive rural-to-urban migration has put additional, extreme pressure on the nation’s social fabric. ・・・
 ・・・strict residence registration requirements force migrant workers to leave their parents behind in the villages, because the elderly can access state medical benefits only if they stay at home.・・・
 Among China’s 185 million people older than 65, nearly one in four is living below the poverty line, more than one in three struggles with daily activities and 40 percent show significant symptoms of depression, the survey showed.
 The results were worse in China’s villages than in the cities, where・・・the elderly are nearly three times as likely to be poor as the average resident.・・・




 ・・・Writers, artists and musicians were found to have a smaller corpus callosum, which may augment their creativity by allowing each side of their brain to develop its own specialisation.・・・
 This does not tell the full story, however. Creativity is not only about divergent thinking but also generating endless associations. Recent findings suggest that the secret to this lies in our DNA.
 "Creativity is related to the connectivity of large-scale brain networks,"・・・
 ・・・this cluster belongs to a gene family known to be involved in the plasticity of the brain: its ability to reorganise itself by breaking and forming new connections between cells.・・・
 ・・・elevating serotonin levels in the brain increases connectivity in one of its most important "hubs" – an area called the posterior cingulate cortex.
 The result is particularly interesting because while serotonin is widely known for regulating sleep, body temperature and libido, the varying levels of this chemical have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar depression.・・・
 ・・・while severe forms of disorders such as schizophrenia tended to be detrimental for cognition and creativity, individuals with bipolar disorder often ended up in professions where creativity was crucial.・・・
 Churchill, Beethoven and Hemingway who have all shown bipolar-like patterns. In bipolar mania, you have an excessive fast and divergent thinking, increased self-esteem, and never-ending energy and motivation, often to create.・・・
 ・・・the relatives of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders also tended to be more creative. Even though they don't share the illness, they have much in common genetically, suggesting that it is the underlying gene mechanisms, rather than the disorder itself, that is the source of the creative ability.
 However, while the discovery of such "creativity genes" indicates that certain people may have a natural propensity for divergent thinking, this does not tell the whole story. A lot depends on how your genes are expressed and this is where the environment can play a defining role.
 ・・・We found that many individuals with artistic creativity suffered from severe traumas in life, whether it be psychological or physical abuse, neglect, hostility or rejection,"・・・
 ・・・trauma is associated with functional alteration of the brain, and it also affects the expression of genes that have an impact on brain structure, maybe in the same large-scale networks that participate in creativity."・・・












 ・・・it is a sobering thought that the greater violence in the voices of Americans with schizophrenia may have something to do with those of us without schizophrenia. I suspect that the root of the differences may be related to the greater sense of assault that people who hear voices feel in a social world where minds are so private and (for the most part) spirits do not speak.
 We Americans live in a society in which, when people feel threatened, they think about guns. The same cultural patterns that make it difficult to get gun violence under control may also be responsible for making these terrible auditory commands that much harsher.








 ・・・Evangelical adoptions picked up in earnest in the middle of the last decade, when a wave of prominent Christians, including the megachurch pastor Rick Warren and leaders of the Southern Baptist Convention, began to promote adoption as a special imperative for believers. ・・・
 After some high-profile adoption horror stories, the number of transnational adoptions to the United States fell to fewer than 9,000 last year, from a high of nearly 23,000 in 2004. Last year, only China and Ethiopia sent more than 1,000 adoptees to America, and only South Korea and Russia topped 500. (Russia this year banned adoptions by American parents.) ・・・








 ・・・One standard question asks respondents to judge which is more important ― “freedom to pursue life’s goals without state interference” or “state guarantees [that] nobody is in need.” By a 58 percent to 35 percent margin, Americans favored freedom over security, reported a 2011 Pew survey. In Europe, opinion was the opposite. Germans valued protections over freedom 62 percent to 36 percent. The results were similar for France, Britain and Spain.・・・
 Another poll question asked respondents to agree or disagree that “success in life is determined by forces outside our control.” In the Pew survey, 72 percent agreed in Germany, 57 percent in France and 50 percent in Spain. By contrast, only 36 percent of Americans agreed in 2011・・・
 Democracies were thought to be “impracticable and unstable.” Only monarchies, often claiming divine authority, could impose social order. ・・・ 
 What also made America special was its core beliefs, starting with “all men are created equal.” In other countries, rigid economic hierarchies reigned. Birth was often fate. ・・・
 With good reason, most Americans have considered their beliefs superior.・・・
 American exceptionalism is eroding. In part, American values ― equality, democracy ― have spread abroad. In part, foreign ideas have spread here. ・・・
 For the nation’s first 140 years, federal spending never, except in wartime, exceeded 4 percent of the economy, says Murray. Now, it regularly tops 20 percent. The U.S. welfare state resembles the European.・・・
 Americans themselves seem increasingly skeptical of exceptionalism. The 2011 Pew survey asked respondents to react to this statement: “Our people are not perfect but our culture is superior.” Only about half of Americans agreed, roughly the same as Germans and Spaniards. Significantly, 60 percent of Americans 50 and over agreed, while only 37 percent of those aged 18 to 29 did.・・・
 Compared to many, Americans are more optimistic, more individualistic, more confident of progress.・・・
・・・The self-proclaimed leader of the free world is turning into a low-wage economy with a class system more rigid than most and a middle class that wavers between poverty and precariousness. ・・・
 ・・・Widening inequality thereby ignites what the historian Richard Hofstadter called the “paranoid style in American politics.” It animated the Know-Nothing and Anti-Masonic movements before the Civil War, the populist agitators of the Progressive Era and the John Birch Society ― whose founder accused President Dwight D. Eisenhower of being a “dedicated, conscious agent of the Communist conspiracy” ― in the 1950s.







・・・Researchers believe that one of the main functions of sleep is to consolidate memories so they can be stored to make room for new memories, therefore freeing up more brain capacity. (Dreams, in fact, may be the replaying of those memories during this processing and storage.)・・・
 ・・・maybe sleep helps to increase our memory but reduce our worries・・・
 ・・・this may be why anxiety disorders and depression are often accompanied by sleep problems.・・・








 ・・・the history of American higher education, especially that of its oldest and most venerated institutions, is riddled with racism. ・・・
 ・・・before they became the presidents of the College of New Jersey and Yale, respectively, the Connecticut evangelist Jonathan Edwards and the Rhode Island minister Ezra Stiles both purchased African children through the captains of slave ships in Newport.・・・
 Throughout the Mid-Atlantic and New England, higher education had its greatest period of expansion as the African slave trade peaked,・・・Human slavery was the precondition for the rise of higher education in the Americas.・・・









 イギリスと比べて軽度とはいえ、拷問それ自体がありふれている以上は 「基本的に拷問の誹りを免れる」 事は有り得ないのではないのでしょうか?





 Texas・・・governor, Rick Perry, boasted as a candidate for president that his schools taught both creationism and evolution・・・
 Four years ago, a conservative bloc on the state school board pushed through amendments to science standards that call for students to “analyze and evaluate” some of the basic principles of evolution.・・・
 Already seven states — California, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Rhode Island and Vermont — have officially adopted the standards. This month, after a legislative committee in Kentucky voted to reject the new science standards, Gov. Steven L. Beshear overruled the decision and said he would use his executive powers to put the standards in place. ・・・



 ・・・消えゆく教会 <(イギリスを含む)>欧州、信者減り進む転用・・・

 ・・・the elderly・・・expos<ed> a seemingly irrational and inconsistent thought process. While they were far less adventurous than younger adults when making choices about possible gains, they seemed to throw caution to the wind when it came to making decisions about potential loss.・・・
 ・・・maybe they think that they have less to lose as they are approaching an old age or the end of life・・・That could have less to do with cognitive changes and more to do with the shifting value they place on risk and benefit as they age.・・・
 It’s definitely a big part of why they may get taken advantage of・・・
 ・・・other research suggests that the impairments in decision-making may extend beyond financial situations to situations like driving.・・・

 Cambridge University neuropsychiatrist Valerie Voon has recently shown that men who describe themselves as addicted to porn (and who lost relationships because of it) develop changes in the same brain area — the reward center — that changes in drug addicts.・・・
 Yet, though he craved it, he did not like it (porn paradox 1). The cravings were so intense, he might feel them while thinking about his computer (paradox 2). The patient would also report that, far from getting more turned on by the idea of sex with his partner, he was less attracted to her (paradox 3). Through porn he acquired new sexual tastes.・・・


 More and more American Jews are marrying non-Jews, and fewer are raising their children Jewish・・・
 Only 26 percent of Jews say religion is very important in their lives, compared with 56 percent of the general public. ・・・
 <そもそもユダヤ「教」は宗教ではなかったという説を唱えるユダヤ系もいるんだね。 エジプト時代に共通の神話と掟をつくったところから出発してるが、神話も掟もどんどん作り変えて来たってんだな。↓>
 ・・・As I look at history and the Torah, Judaism isn’t really a religion at all, but a path beyond religion. It was developed by the equivalent of recovering cult members, as a way beyond the idolatry and death worship of Ancient Egypt. Instead of “believing” things, a disparate amalgam of tribes (those mythic sons of Jacob), developed a living myth together -- as well as a system of law that could be amended as civilization evolved.・・・

 ・・・ Only a third of people in England do the recommended 2.5 hours or more of moderate-intensity activity, such as cycling or fast walking, every week.・・・
 Doing exercise regularly:
・Can reduce your risk of major illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer by up to 50%
・Can lower your risk of early death by up to 30%
・Can boost self-esteem, mood, sleep quality and energy as well as keep weight off


 ・・・It seems that all my life we have been bombing someone, teaching them a lesson. Every day I understand more deeply how violent we are. Violent to others and violent to ourselves. ・・・
 We are a brawling, righteous, pompous, ignorant people, a land of blowhards to the right and left.
 Our warlike impulses and warlike pride are dangerously coupled with our insufferable vanity, our permanent immaturity, our lives of fear and pleasure.
 The very land we stand on was taken from someone else and made profitable by people who did not own themselves.
 There’s a mass shooting and we have a phony little debate over gun control, but no one on the right or the left talks about suicide by gun.
 We are violently disposed to others and we are just as violently disposed to ourselves. ・・・


 ・・・A striking new study found that reading literary fiction -- as opposed to popular fiction or serious nonfiction -- leads people to perform better on tests that measure empathy, social perception and emotional intelligence.・・・


 強迫性人格障害(obsessive-compulsive personality disorder。コラム#6291)の話がまた出てた。ジェファーソン、リンドバーグ、スティーヴ・ジョブズらが罹っていたとされる精神障害だ。↓
・・・political visionary Thomas Jefferson, renowned librarian Melvil Dewey, condiment titan Henry Heinz, prominent sexologist Alfred Kinsey, celebrated aviator Charles Lindbergh, cosmetic giant Estee Lauder and baseball legend Ted Williams・・・Steve Jobs・・・
 ・・・obsessive innovators are more made than born.・・・ they were often motivated by troubled upbringings and childhood neglect, coupled with obsessive personalities that caused them to dedicate themselves to perfectionist goals. And the benefits of their compulsive preoccupation with flawless excellence came at the expense of flexibility and social aptitude.
 An extreme workaholic and disciplined listmaker,・・・
 Symptoms of this disorder include preoccupations with interpersonal control and sexual thoughts.・・・


 ・・・the poor, compared with the wealthy, have keenly attuned interpersonal attention in all directions, in general, those with the most power in society seem to pay particularly little attention to those with the least power. ・・・
 <食品割引切符(food stamp)やオバマケアへの米下院共和党議員達の否定的態度の背景にはこのことがあるとさ。↓>
 In politics, readily dismissing inconvenient people can easily extend to dismissing inconvenient truths about them. The insistence by some House Republicans in Congress on cutting financing for food stamps and impeding the implementation of Obamacare, which would allow patients, including those with pre-existing health conditions, to obtain and pay for insurance coverage, may stem in part from the empathy gap.
 As political scientists have noted, redistricting and gerrymandering have led to the creation of more and more safe districts, in which elected officials don’t even have to encounter many voters from the rival party, much less empathize with them.・・・

 ・・・Women can get pregnant five to eight days after having sex・・・
 Wearing high heels can negatively affect a woman’s orgasm・・・
 Sitting in chairs can arouse women・・・…But it can also dampen their orgasms・・・
 Women have three erogenous zones・・・The clitoris, the G Spot, AND the opening of the cervix. Some argue nipples belong on that list too.・・・
 The pulsations a woman feels during orgasm are actually her uterus trying to gather sperm・・・
 All woman can achieve orgasm・・・

 ・・・Forcing eye contact when trying to change someone’s mind may actually cause listeners to become more stubborn・・・


 ・・・when viewers saw white people receiving a painful stimulus, they responded more dramatically than they did for black people.・・・
 ・・・white participants, black participants, and nurses and nursing students assumed that blacks felt less pain than whites.・・・
 The more privilege assumed of the target, the more pain the participants perceived. Conversely, the more hardship assumed, the less pain perceived.・・・



 <米国人で英国で活躍したジョージ・プライス(Geroge Price。1922〜75年)は、人間の利他主義は、近親者に対する利他主義であって、実は遺伝子レベルでは利己主義の発露であることを数学的に「証明」した。↓>
 ・・・A debate about the scientific roots of altruism still rages to this day, but kin selection remains a hugely influential theory, and Price's contribution is held in high regard by many.・・・
 "He was so depressed when he found out that Hamilton was right."
 In the summer of 1970, Price became a devout Christian and embarked on a radical project - giving himself over to the service of others.
 "He was going to go out to try and show that human beings are the only species that can beat out their own nature. And he was going to do that by becoming a pure selfless altruist," says Harman.
 Price began giving money to homeless people, and invited many of them to live with him in his flat near Oxford Circus. His increasingly erratic behaviour left him penniless. He left his flat and eventually moved into a squat in Kentish Town.
 It is not universally agreed that Price's equation triggered his downfall - he was undoubtedly suffering from some form of mental illness as well. And in the winter of 1975, Price took his own life.
 For Harman, the two are inextricably linked. "I think the fact that George killed himself due to his interpretation of the equation really focuses the problem to the utmost degree." ・・・


 ・・・The study followed the offspring of more than 8,000 mothers who had postnatal or antenatal depression.
 The risk is around 1.3 times higher than normal at age 18, it found.・・・


 ・・・music has sharpened: collaboration, creativity, discipline and the capacity to reconcile conflicting ideas. ・・・
 Music may not make you a genius, or rich, or even a better person. But it helps train you to think differently, to process different points of view -- and most important, to take pleasure in listening.


・・・over time, parents in our model evolved to invest more resources in daughters who chose mates with few resources. This unequal investment was in the parents’ best interests, because a daughter with an unsupportive partner would profit more from extra help than her more fortunate sisters (the principle of diminishing returns on investment). By helping their needier daughters, parents maximized their total number of surviving grandchildren.
 But this unequal investment created an incentive for daughters to “exploit” their parents’ generosity by choosing a partner who was less supportive. A daughter who was less picky than her sisters would accept a less helpful partner, but since her parents picked up the slack she ended up with a similar amount of support, while sparing herself the costs of holding out for the perfect man.
 As a result, the choosiness of females gradually declined over evolutionary time. To counterbalance this, the parental preference for caring sons-in-law increased. Hence the conflict. ・・・









 ・・・8 in 10 Americans believed in angels ― even 4 in 10 people who never went to church. ・・・1 in 5 Americans experienced ghosts and 1 in 7 had consulted a psychic. In 2005, Gallup found that 3 out of 4 Americans believed in something paranormal, and that 4 in 10 said that houses could be haunted. ・・・
 Our hunter-gatherer ancestors were more likely to survive if they interpreted ambiguous noise as the sound of a predator. Most of the time it was the wind, of course, but if there really was danger, the people who worried about it were more likely to live.
 That inclination to search for an agent has evolved into an intuition that an invisible agent, or god, may be there.・・・
 ・・・churches that rely on a relatively impersonal God (like mainstream Protestant denominations) have seen their congregations dwindle over the last 50 years. ・・・
  To experience God as walking by your side, in conversation with you, is hard. ・・・
 ・・・experiencing an invisible companion as truly present ― especially as an adult ― takes work: constant concentration, a state that resembles prayer. ・・・

 ・・・there are 3,600 international criminal organizations in the European Union and that some 880,000 slave laborers live in the 27-nation bloc, including 270,000 victims of sexual exploitation. ・・・

 Young bonobos that are are more "socially competent" are more likely to cuddle and calm other apes that are in distress・・・
 ・・・bonobos that recovered quickly from an upsetting experience, such as a fight, were also more likely to comfort others. ・・・




 ・・・There is only one divine Mind, the knower of all. This Mind is the consciousness of supreme good, the one supreme God, and forever continues to be who and what He is. It is the momentum of this Mind that impels all progress, forwards advancement, and energizes innovation.
 Pure Mind is also pure Love. It is the stillness of divine Love that calms any uproar, quiets every outburst, and gentles all upheaval. Movement and stillness. We don’t usually think of them as synonymous terms, and yet they come from an identical source, the Mind that is pure Love and the Love that is pure Mind.
They dawn at the same moment, abide in the same locale, and function in keeping with the same intelligent source.・・・


 Now a new study out of the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) suggests sleep is necessary for the brain to get rid of waste. The study, published in the journal Science, also reveals that the brain’s cells shrivel up by 60% while we sleep to wash away the cellular garbage more effectively. Researchers believe that all the cleaning activity is one of the reasons the brain uses about as much energy while in sleep as while in wake mode. Sleep is known to perform many critical functions, including consolidating memories and recharging cells, but this is the first time it has been linked with cerebral rubbish removal.・・・
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24567412 ←同趣旨の記事だ。

・・・The men tended to cycle their patients though quickly―as evidenced by fact that the male doctors performed, on average, 1,000 more basic treatment procedures per year than the women. But that seeming efficiency may be self-defeating: the investigators worry that the quicker the turnover in any one doctor’s office, the likelier a patient is to return to have questions answered or treatment details explained that weren’t addressed in the initial appointment.・・・

 ・・・Official health advice that said household chores help keep you active has been debunked by research, which shows that the people who do the most housework are also the most overweight.・・・

 ・・・lower socioeconomic status is associated with a range of self-defeating behaviors, including more risk-taking (not using seat belts, for example), worse adherence to protocols (such as failing to complete a full course of a medicine) and poorer financial management (impulse buying, for example, or buying on credit, which adds considerably to an item's cost).・・・
 ・・・poor people, in general, have a greater cognitive load than rich people.
 This makes sense. It's more cognitively burdensome, after all, to figure out how you're possibly going to pay this month's rent than to figure out where to vacation next summer. Mani's research supports this idea with fascinating data.・・・









 ・・・From a masculinity perspective, men are supposed to be the ones that succeed, and certainly for some men they think they should succeed more than women and be better than women・・・


 ・・・women are more likely to orgasm from intercourse while in a serious relationship than during a hookup.・・・
 The study of 600 college students found that women were half as likely to orgasm from oral sex or intercourse during a casual hookup than when they were in a serious relationship. This backs earlier research by New York University sociologist Paula England, which showed that just 40% of the 24,000 college aged women she studied over five years at 21 colleges reached orgasm during a hookup while 80% of men did. Nearly 75% of women who were in a relationship, on the other hand, had an orgasm during sex.
 Women, researchers say, likely do not feel comfortable telling their hook-ups what they want and need during sex while their male partners are admittedly less focused on pleasing a casual sex partner.・・・

 Exercise during pregnancy gives babies' brains a boost ・・・


 ・・・people with major depression are at increased risk of age-related diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity and heart disease. ・・・
 People who were or had been depressed had much shorter telomeres than those who had never experienced depression. ・・・
 ・・・the most severely and chronically depressed patients had the shortest telomeres. ・・・


 ・・・According to a new study, women aren’t just more likely to make career sacrifices to spend time caring for their kids. They’re more likely to drop out to care for their parents, too.・・・
 Seven percent of the women in the sample “assisted with parents’ personal needs,” compared to 3.6 percent of men; 20 percent of women “helped parents with chores, errands, and transportation,” compared to 16 percent of men. And female caregivers were much more likely to exit the workforce to execute these duties. ・・・


 'Memories' pass between generations・・・
 Experiments showed that a traumatic event could affect the DNA in sperm and alter the brains and behaviour of subsequent generations.
 A Nature Neuroscience study shows mice trained to avoid a smell passed their aversion on to their "grandchildren".・・・


 ・・・even when a person is "metabolically healthy," being obese raises his or her risk for cardiovascular disease and premature death.・・・

 ・・・Male brains appeared to be wired front to back, with few connections bridging the two hemispheres.
 In females, the pathways criss-crossed between left and right.
 These differences might explain why men, in general, tend to be better at learning and performing a single task, like cycling or navigating, whereas women are more equipped for multitasking・・・


 Walking, fast or slow, is wonderful exercise. But now a first-of-its-kind study shows that to get the most health benefits from walking, many of us need to pick up the pace.・・・〜〜http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/04/why-a-bri...





 ・・・we found no evidence that a brief series of parent-child music classes improved preschoolers’ cognitive skills. ・・・


 ・・・We already knew that good stories can put you in someone else's shoes in a figurative sense. Now we're seeing that something may also be happening biologically.・・・
 The results showed “heightened connectivity” in the left temporal cortex, an area of the brain associated with receptivity for language, and also in the central sulcus, the brain’s primary sensory motor region・・・ that can be detected up to five days after the reader closes the book.・・・


 ・・・mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is effective in treating depression and anxiety・・・
 Mindfulness is not about trying to change things, but accepting them as they are, non-judgmentally, with as much kindness and gentleness as possible.・・・

 Playing Mozart and Beethoven to young children improves their listening skills, concentration and self-discipline・・・
 Some teachers credited the music with improving English skills.
 If these are the effects of listening to music, what happens if you encourage your child to play an instrument?・・・ it won't make much difference.・・・

 A cup or two of coffee could boost the brain's ability to store long-term memories・・・


 ・・・"The creative elements needed to produce humour are strikingly similar to those characterising the cognitive style of people with psychosis - both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder."・・・
 ・・・although schizophrenic psychosis itself could be detrimental to humour, in a lesser form it could increase people's ability to associate odd or unusual things or to think "outside the box".
 Manic thinking, which is found in those with bipolar disorder, may help people combine ideas to form new, original and humorous connections・・・
 Comedians tend to be slightly withdrawn, introverted people who may not always want to socialise, and their comedy is almost an outlet for that. It's a kind of self-medication.・・・

 Study shows 'brain doping' is common in amateur sport・・・


 20代男性の42%が「異性と性交渉を持った経験がない」としたインターネットのアンケート結果・・・ 20代女性で「ない」と回答した21%の2倍・・・


 ・・・an increase in crystallized intelligence can account for a decrease in fluid intelligence・・・


 「女性アスリートの難敵・月経も調整 ロンドンで実績、JISSが支援・・・

 A new brain region that appears to help humans identify whether they have made bad decisions has been discovered by researchers.・・・
 Further scans failed to find any comparable region in monkeys, suggesting the area is exclusive to humans.・・・


 ・・・The widely held scientific assumption is that we have six emotions: happy, surprised, afraid, disgusted, angry, and sad. But a new study from University of Glasgow scientists published in the journal Current Biology this week says humans may only have four biologically based emotions: happy, sad, afraid/surprised, and angry/disgusted.・・・

人間科学記事 2へつづく・・・


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