First Cow no login Torrents Solarmovie no sign up

  1. directed by Kelly Reichardt
  2. 50 votes
  3. Writed by Kelly Reichardt
  4. genre Drama
  5. 121Minutes
  6. Country USA
First cowboys in america. Reichardt's tender story of 19th century friendship consolidates the themes of her previous movies to hypnotic effect. Few filmmakers wrestle with what it means to be American the way Kelly Reichardt has injected that question into all of her movies. In a meticulous fashion typical of her spellbinding approach, “ First Cow ” consolidates the potent themes of everything leading up to it: It returns her to the nascent America of the 19th century frontier at the center of “Meeks Cutoff, ” touches on the environmental frustrations of “Night Moves, ” revels in the glorious isolation of the countryside in “Certain Women, ” and the somber travails of vagrancy at the center of “Wendy and Lucy. ” Mostly, though, “First Cow” unfolds like “Old Joy” in the Oregon Territory. Once again, Reichardt has crafted a wondrous little story about two friends roaming the natural splendors of the Pacific Northwest, searching for their place in the world. The appeal of this hypnotic, unpredictable movie comes from how they find that place through mutual failure, and the nature of that outcome in the context of an early, untamed America has rich implications that gradually seep into the frame. Reichardt excels at communing with natural beauty and humankinds complex relationship to it, but “First Cow” pushes that motif into timeless resonance. Though the bulk of “First Cow” unfolds in 1820, it begins with a modern-day prologue in the same woodsy location, where a young woman (Alia Shawkat in a fleeting cameo) uncovers two skeletons lying side by side in the woods. That tantalizing image follows a quote from William Blake ? “the bird a nest, the spider a web, man friendship” ? establishing the instinctive bond that follows. From there, the movie flashes back to the distant past, telling the origin story of those skeletons as an unsuspecting buddy movie. It begins with the plight of Cookie (John Magaro) a shy pushover roaming through the forest and serving as the cook for a group of virile fur trappers. Foraging one night after dark, he comes across a wandering Chinese man named King-Lu (Orion Lee) who left his native land long ago and claims to be on the lam from Russians. Its never quite clear just how much King-Lus story has been invented by the mysterious traveler, but when the pair reconnect at the barren Royal West Pacific Trading Post, they immediately bond over mutual alienation. And then, a sneaky business opportunity: When they spot a nearby property owner bringing the first cow to the region, they come up with a plot to steal its milk so they can sell biscuits and oil cakes to the weary travelers passing through the region. With time, this plot becomes an origin story of greed, desperation, and the American dream, rooting it in a sincere desire to find success in an unforgiving world. Cookie and King-Lu may be reckless, but theyre a lovable pair, compelled by a quest to succeed that transcends the specificity of its setting. Theres a fundamental metaphorical dimension to this unusual plot ? the very nature of Eastern and Western characters, hesitant to join forces as they map out an unrealistic plan to conquer the world, invites many interpretations ??but Reichardt doesnt overplay it. Instead, “First Cow” lingers in the scenery, with cinematographer Christopher Blauvelt drawing out the storybook wonders of a landscape dominated by hulking trees and unforgiving rivers. “History hasnt gotten here yet, ” King-Lu tells his new pal, and its unclear if their presence represents an opportunity or a threat. “First Cow” has been adapted from “The Half-Life, ” a novel by Reichardts longtime collaborator John Raymond, who co-wrote the screenplay with her. Raymonds novel, however, contrasted the frontier setting with a modern-day tale of friendship; by dropping that storyline, Reichardt allows the period backdrop to take on an inquisitive quality that interrogates the present without confronting it directly. William Tylers ebullient score draws out the gradual sense of possibility percolating through the empty scenery, and gives the story a sweeter quality than the melancholy dominating much of her work. It hovers in the ambition of its characters, setting up the emotional process they undergo when the reality of their scheme comes crashing into the pictures. Eventually, the pair run into problems with a wealthy British trade mogul (Toby Jones, relishing the part of an avaricious colonist) who hires them to bring some of their tasty biscuits over, not realizing theyve been stealing ingredients from his backyard to make them. This encounter sets the scene for a mesmerizing chase across the messy scenery, and a hypnotic encounter with indigenous peoples that serves as Reichardts latest trenchant reminder that someone else had this land first. But even here, Reichardt doesnt indict her wayward characters for falling prey to proto-capitalist impulses; instead, theyre victims of a universal struggle to find success and stability, and in the process they find each other. With a few more telling glances, “First Cow” might have turned the ballad of King-Lu and Cookie into the material for a homoerotic Western, but Reichardt doesnt force that context onto material with broader intentions for its characters. Magaro buries himself in the role of a lonely introvert a world apart from his more conventional turns on “Orange is the New Black” and in “Carol, ” crafting a tender figure whose understated nature makes it all too easy for others to impose their agenda onto him. Lee, meanwhile, inhabits a mysterious figure at odds with his foreign identity, with a sneaky grin that hides big plans that never quite come to fruition. King-Lu and Cookie need each other not only to survive but to bond over that very same need, and “First Cow” commiserates with their journey in a kind-hearted fashion that allows the movie to resonate with more warmth than it initially lets on. As with all of her work, Reichardt communes with the notion that even reckless people simply want to find meaning in their small corners of existence, and the last three words of the story ? “Ive got you” ? have a cathartic power that suggests no victory can be greater than companionship itself. Grade: A- “First Cow” premiered at the 2019 Telluride Film Festival and next plays NYFF. A24 will release it in 2020. Sign Up: Stay on top of the latest breaking film and TV news! Sign up for our Email Newsletters here.
First cow disease. First cowboy game 2020. This website uses cookies to provide you with a better experience You can adjust your cookie settings through your browser. If you do not adjust your settings, you are consenting to us issuing all cookies to you. 2:17 The mummy. 1:13 legit, this was the only part I got scared at lmao, and it wasn't even the doll. First cowboy qb. As a farmer, I believe that all livestock need the availability to experience pasture or similar daily.(except in extreme weather) It's unhealthy to keep animals in such close quarters. Sun and fresh air are not only good for the emotional health of the animals, but is also a sanitizer of germs. So many respiratory illnesses develop from close quarter housing due to dust, drafts, humidity, long term ammonia inhalation, transmission of bacteria and viruses. Just not a good idea if the weather permits outdoor pasturing. Furthermore, the idea temperatures for cattle health and happiness lies between 50-60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Was imagining a film about the first cow on the moon. Sightly disappointed. Another great show. First cow milk after birth. This looks really interesting. Anyone know what the song is. United States, 2019 Drama 121 Synopsis The story of Cookie Figowitz and King-Lus burgeoning friendship in the ever-changing Northwest landscape?and a get-rich-quick scheme involving the first cow in the territory. This film is not currently playing on MUBI but 30 other great films are. See whats now showing Show all (3) What are people saying? Lynch/Fellini's rating of the film First Cow Saw at NYFF 57: Kelly Reichardt beautifully uses the past to commentate on the present in this beautiful critique of class disparity. It's a slow and lyrical film that never becomes obvious or condescending, once again further illustrating why she is one of the best and most undervalued filmmakers working today. xuxuxush's rating of the film First Cow A lovely, moving film, containing Reichardt's signature quiet beauty, steady rhythm, and re-evaluation of America's myths of origins (its trailblazers aren't rugged & repressed John Ford white male cowboy types, but a worldly Chinese man and a soft & sensitive baker who picks flowers. Not only is "the future female. but the past may have been feminine, or at least effeminate, too. Walker's rating of the film First Cow It was truly an honor to attend the premier of Kelly Reichardts latest feature film at Alice Tully Hall, Lincoln Center.
First coweta bank newnan ga. They are like dogs.? playing on the fields. First cowboy hats. More propaganda videos. First community bank kingsville texas. Farewell James. Even though you're not apart of CC anymore. I'll still support both you and them. ?. Just watching this trailer made me cry and reminded me of my grandma.

A24, Release Date: March 6, 2020, PG-13 Starring: Alia Shawkat, Clayton Nemrow, Dylan Smith, Ewen Bremner, Gary Farmer, Jeb Berrier, John Keating, John Magaro, Lily Gladstone, Manuel Rodriguez, Orion Lee, Patrick D. Green, René Auberjonois, Scott Shepherd, Ted Rooney, Toby Jones, Todd A. Robinson Summary: A taciturn loner and skilled cook (John Magaro) has traveled west and joined a group of fur trappers in Oregon Territory, though he only finds true connection with a Chinese immigrant (Orion Lee) also seeking his fortune; soon the two collaborate on a successful business, although its longevity is reliant upon the clandestine participation A taciturn loner and skilled cook (John Magaro) has traveled west and joined a group of fur trappers in Oregon Territory, though he only finds true connection with a Chinese immigrant (Orion Lee) also seeking his fortune; soon the two collaborate on a successful business, although its longevity is reliant upon the clandestine participation of a nearby wealthy landowners prized milking cow. … Expand Genre(s) Drama Rating: PG-13 Runtime: 121 min.
First cow trailer 2020. Will you get her fix or you gonna breed her when she gets older. That pad scene was disgustingly hilarious. I saw a video of a Russian farmer chain a 4 x 4 across the outer rim of his tractor tire that was stuck in the mud. Every time one end of the 4 x 4 would come around, it would walk the tractor two or three feet further until he cleared the bad spot. I wonder if you could use that technique on an icy slope like you're fighting? You sure could have used Terryn's right hand puppy, Dot this morning with your escape cattle! That was the smartest dog I've ever seen.
First cow movie. First cowboy in washington state. &ref(,h_350,q_70,strp/hand_ref_request__holding_hands__train_coupling_1_by_melyssah6_stock_d90h886-350t.jpg?token=eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJ1cm46YXBwOjdlMGQxODg5ODIyNjQzNzNhNWYwZDQxNWVhMGQyNmUwIiwiaXNzIjoidXJuOmFwcDo3ZTBkMTg4OTgyMjY0MzczYTVmMGQ0MTVlYTBkMjZlMCIsIm9iaiI6W1t7ImhlaWdodCI6Ijw9MTQ1MiIsInBhdGgiOiJcL2ZcL2IwYmZkMTgzLTkzZmItNGI5OS05ODI1LWVmZGJhYjI5NmNhNVwvZDkwaDg4Ni1iMTE1OTc5Mi1hOTg5LTQwYmQtOWUzYy0xYzdlNWY1ODRiN2QuanBnIiwid2lkdGgiOiI8PTEwMjQifV1dLCJhdWQiOlsidXJuOnNlcnZpY2U6aW1hZ2Uub3BlcmF0aW9ucyJdfQ._UqrjtYU48JgpZ_ManfLDYJ4Q8bj8SpP49mciE4qh-c)
Critics Consensus No consensus yet. 90% TOMATOMETER Total Count: 10 Coming soon Release date: Mar 6, 2020 Audience Score Ratings: Not yet available First Cow Ratings & Reviews Explanation First Cow Videos Movie Info Kelly Reichardt once again trains her perceptive and patient eye on the Pacific Northwest, this time evoking an authentically hardscrabble early nineteenth century way of life. A taciturn loner and skilled cook (John Magaro) has traveled west and joined a group of fur trappers in Oregon Territory, though he only finds true connection with a Chinese immigrant (Orion Lee) also seeking his fortune; soon the two collaborate on a successful business, although its longevity is reliant upon the clandestine participation of a nearby wealthy landowner's prized milking cow. From this simple premise Reichardt constructs an interrogation of foundational Americana that recalls her earlier triumph Old Joy in its sensitive depiction of male friendship, yet is driven by a mounting suspense all its own. Reichardt again shows her distinct talent for depicting the peculiar rhythms of daily living and ability to capture the immense, unsettling quietude of rural America. Rating: PG-13 (for brief strong language) Genre: Directed By: Written By: In Theaters: Mar 6, 2020 limited Runtime: 122 minutes Studio: A24 Cast News & Interviews for First Cow Critic Reviews for First Cow Audience Reviews for First Cow There are no featured reviews for First Cow because the movie has not released yet (Mar 6, 2020. See Movies in Theaters First Cow Quotes News & Features.
Mérycisme et nissen. It follows fur trappers in the 1820s. Kelly Reichardt Daniel Bergeron If your first thought upon hearing the words “ First Cow ” is “that must be the name of the new Kelly Reichardt movie, ” congratulations on your savvy.?A casting call for the “Certain Women, ” “Meeks Cutoff, ” and “Wendy & Lucy” directors next project notes that the film is set to shoot from November 2?December 11 under production company FilmScience (“I Dont Feel at Home in This World Anymore, ” “Green Room”) meaning we could see it as early as next year. Heres a brief synopsis: “When Cookie Figowitz, the cook for a party of volatile fur trappers trekking through the Oregon Territory in the 1820s, joins up with the refugee Henry Brown, the two begin a wild ride that takes them from the virgin territory of the West all the way to China and back again. ” The casting call is only for extras, suggesting that the roles of Cookie and Henry have either already been filled or are being cast elsewhere. A note about the films use of Native American talent ? which is intended to be more thoughtful and accurate than that of most other movies ? provides further details about the plot: “This film is an independently-produced narrative fiction set in an Oregon fur trading post in the 1820s. During this time, European settlers and Native Americans traded furs and other goods as foreigners settled in the region. The Native American characters in this film are people who live in & around the trading post and vendors at the local market. ” “Certain Women, ” which starred Michelle Williams, Laura Dern, Kristen Stewart, and Lily Gladstone, premiered to great acclaim at Sundance in 2016 and eventually became Reichardts most financially successful film. According to Ion Cinema, “First Cow” is an adaptation of at least one half of Jonathan Raymonds novel “The Half Life, ” which tells of two different events that take place more than 170 years apart. Sign Up: Stay on top of the latest breaking film and TV news! Sign up for our Email Newsletters here.
First cowboy hat. Yaayyy. So much of greens... I jump moo moo. First cowtown. First cowboy movie ever made youtube. Edit Storyline A loner and cook (John Magaro) has traveled west and joined a group of fur trappers in Oregon Territory, though he only finds connection with a Chinese immigrant (Orion Lee. The men collaborate on a business, although its longevity is reliant upon the participation of a wealthy landowner's prized milking cow. Written by A24 Plot Summary, Add Synopsis Motion Picture Rating ( MPAA) Rated PG-13 for brief strong language. Details Release Date: 6 March 2020 (USA) See more ?? Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs ??.
First cowboys in usa.

YouTube. "First Cow" redirects here. For the upcoming film, see First Cow (film. Pauline Wayne was a Holstein cow that belonged to William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States. Also known as "Miss Wayne" Pauline was not Taft's first presidential cow: she replaced the lesser-known "Mooly Wooly" which provided milk for the First Family for a year and a half before suddenly dying in 1910, reportedly after eating too many oats. [1] Taft and his wife, Helen Herron Taft, had growing children, and Taft was a notoriously large eater; accordingly, Mooly Wooly was replaced by Pauline Wayne. Wisconsin senator Isaac Stephenson bought Pauline Wayne for Mrs. Taft. [2] The four year-old cow was pregnant and gave birth to a male calf named "Big Bill" after the President) which was later sent to a Maryland farm. [1] Pauline Wayne became a popular showpiece at the International Dairymens Exposition in Milwaukee in 1911. Pauline Wayne was being shipped to the show in a private train car that was attached to a whole train of cattle cars bound for the Chicago stock yards. The cow went missing for two days because a train switch crew had mistakenly switched Paulines car. The attendants who found Pauline Wayne convinced the stock yard that this was indeed the Presidents cow, and she was saved "from the bludgeon of the slaughterer. 1] 3. From 1910 to 1913, Miss Wayne freely grazed the White House lawn. [4] She was the last presidential cow to live at the White House and was considered as much a Taft family pet as she was livestock. When Taft left office, she was shipped to Wisconsin. [5] Her Bovine Blue Book number was 115, 580. The origin of the name "Pauline Wayne" is unknown; however, the New York Times noted that she was "a member of the great Wayne family of Holsteins. 4] See also [ edit] United States presidential pets References [ edit] a b c Powell, Mark J. (January 7, 2017. The President's Cow Is Missing. Retrieved November 21, 2017. ^ Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (2005. Nellie Taft: The Unconventional First Lady of the Ragtime Era, pp. 239-40. Harper Collins. ISBN ? 0-06-051382-9. ^ Pauline Wayne, President Tafts Famous Cow ^ a b "White House Cow Arrives. Pauline Wayne, 3d, Comes Safely from Wisconsin - A Calf Expected" PDF. The New York Times. November 4, 1910. Retrieved January 15, 2017. ^ Taft Cow on Retired List. Pauline Wayne Goes Back to Her Old Wisconsin Farm" PDF. February 2, 1913. Retrieved January 15, 2017. External links [ edit] Pauline Wayne, Presidential Cow.
You've done DMT? You never mentioned it??. Now they need a Titanic cinematic universe that leads up to Titanic: Endgame. The First Cow by Abeny Kucha Abeny Kucha flees from violence in her village in the Sudan and finds a new home in Portland, Maine. Extras From This Story Abeny Kucha sits down to talk with The Moth's Curatorial Associate, Casey Donahue, about life in the United States, cultural differences, and retirement. Abeny also shared her story with NET?Public Television in Lincoln, Nebraska where she lives. See video of her story here. "Our first day in America, eating our first meal, after we have been eating leaves for so many years in refugee camps in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya. That was chicken, we were eating chicken that day, not leaves. 5/24/1994. Abeny A family photo taken in Minnesota in 2006. Abeny and her daughter Atong at Atong's graduation from law school in Minnesota, 2012. "My brother Mareach. He was twelve years old when we first arrived in America. Now he is an engineer, he makes planes (he works with The Boeing company) it is a dream come true. Abeny Abeny's daughter Atong's wedding on the shores of Lake Superior (L) and her traditional marriage in Nebraska, 2016 (R. Abeny's book is available on Amazon.
First cowboys were black. First cow creek. What I feel insecured about: we asian talking in english and others think we're trying hard to put an american english accent but really that is just how we talk. Directed by Kelly Reichardt Written by Kelly Reichardt and Jon Raymond Starring John Magaro, Orion Lee, Toby Jones, and Ewen Bremner Synopsis Kelly Reichardt once again trains her perceptive and patient eye on the Pacific Northwest, this time evoking an authentically hardscrabble early nineteenth century way of life. A taciturn loner and skilled cook (John Magaro) has traveled west and joined a group of fur trappers in Oregon Territory, though he only finds true connection with a Chinese immigrant (Orion Lee) also seeking his fortune; soon the two collaborate on a successful business, although its longevity is reliant upon the clandestine participation of a nearby wealthy landowners prized milking cow. From this simple premise Reichardt constructs an interrogation of foundational Americana that recalls her earlier triumph Old Joy in its sensitive depiction of male friendship, yet is driven by a mounting suspense all its own. Reichardt again shows her distinct talent for depicting the peculiar rhythms of daily living and ability to capture the immense, unsettling quietude of rural America.
First cow 2020. First cowboys documentary. Mérycisme autisme. I'll believe it when I'm walking out of the theatre. First cow clone. First Cow Theatrical release poster Directed by Kelly Reichardt Produced by Neil Kopp Vincent Savino Anish Savjani Screenplay by Kelly Reichardt Jonathan Raymond Based on The Half Life by Jonathan Raymond Starring John Magaro Orion Lee René Auberjonois Music by William Tyler Cinematography Christopher Blauvelt Edited by Kelly Reichardt Production companies FilmScience IAC Films Distributed by A24 Release date August?30,?2019 ( Telluride) March?6,?2020 (United States) Running time 121 minutes [1] Country United States Language English First Cow is a 2019 American drama film directed by Kelly Reichardt, from a screenplay by Reichardt and Jonathan Raymond based on Raymond's novel The Half Life. It stars John Magaro, Orion Lee, Toby Jones, Ewen Bremner, Alia Shawkat, and René Auberjonois in his final film role. It had its world premiere at the Telluride Film Festival on August 30, 2019. It is scheduled to be released on March 6, 2020, by A24. It was also selected to compete for the Golden Bear in the main competition section at the 70th Berlin International Film Festival. [2] 3] Cast [ edit] John Magaro as Cookie Figowitz Orion Lee as King Lu Toby Jones Ewen Bremner Scott Shepherd Gary Farmer Lily Gladstone Alia Shawkat Production [ edit] In October 2018, it was announced Kelly Reichardt would direct the film, from a screenplay she wrote alongside Jonathan Raymond. Neil Kopp, Vincent Savino, Anish Savjani, Scott Rudin and Eli Bush will produce the film under their FilmScience and Scott Rudin Productions banners, respectively, while A24 will distribute. [4] 5] In November 2018, René Auberjonois was cast in the film. [6] In March 2019, it was announced John Magaro had joined the cast of the film. [7] Principal photography began in November 2018. [8] Release [ edit] It had its world premiere at the Telluride Film Festival on August 30, 2019. [9] It screened at the New York Film Festival on September 28, 2019. [10] It is scheduled to be released on March 6, 2020. [11] References [ edit] "First Cow. New York Film Festival. Retrieved August 6, 2019. ^ The 70th Berlinale Competition and Further Films to Complete the Berlinale Special. Berlinale. Retrieved 29 January 2020. ^ Berlin Competition Lineup Revealed: Sally Potter, Kelly Reichardt, Eliza Hittman, Abel Ferrara. Variety. Retrieved 29 January 2020. ^ Nordine, Michael (October 31, 2018. First Cow' Kelly Reichardt's Follow-Up to 'Certain Women' Is a Period Piece Set in Oregon and China. IndieWire. Retrieved March 13, 2019. ^ Production Weekly" PDF. Production Weekly. December 20, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2019. ^ Auberjonois, Rene (November 30, 2018. Oh dear! I know! I've been AWOL. a combination of family stuff, travel, and the dregs of a miserable cold (better now. Going to Oregon on Sunday to shoot a 'bit' on "FIRST COW" new film by Kelly Reichardt! Excited. Twitter. Retrieved November 30, 2018. ^ Hipes, Patrick (March 12, 2019. John Magaro Joins 'The Many Saints Of Newark' In Reteam With David Chase. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 13, 2019. ^ Lavallee, Eric (October 31, 2018. Her Old Joy: Kelly Reichardt Finds Oregon by Way of China in "First Cow. Retrieved March 13, 2019. ^ Hammond, Pete (August 29, 2019. Telluride Film Festival: Ford V Ferrari. Judy. Motherless Brooklyn' Weinstein-Inspired Drama 'The Assistant' Among Premieres Headed To 46th Edition ? Full List. Retrieved August 29, 2019. ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (August 6, 2019. 57th New York Film Festival Sets Full Slate; Pedro Almodovar, Bong Joon-ho Bring Their Cannes Prize Winners. Retrieved August 6, 2019. ^ First Cow. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 29, 2019. External links [ edit] First Cow on IMDb.
According to archaeological and genetic evidence, wild cattle or aurochs ( Bos primigenius) were likely domesticated independently at least twice and perhaps three times. A distantly related Bos species, the yak ( Bos grunniens grunniens or Poephagus grunniens) was domesticated from its still-living wild form, B. grunniens or B. grunniens mutus. As domesticated animals go, cattle are among the earliest, perhaps because of the multitude of useful products they provide humans: food products such as milk, blood, fat, and meat; secondary products such as clothing and tools manufactured from hair, hides, horns, hooves and bones; dung for fuel; as well as load-bearers and for pulling plows. Culturally, cattle are banked resources, which can provide bride-wealth and trade as well as rituals such as feasting and sacrifices. Aurochs were significant enough to Upper Paleolithic hunters in Europe to be included in cave paintings such as those of Lascaux. Aurochs were one of the largest herbivores in Europe, with the largest bulls reaching shoulder heights of between 160-180 centimeters (5. 2-6 feet) with massive frontal horns of up to 80 cm (31 inches) in length. Wild yaks have black upward- and backward-curving horns and long shaggy black to brown coats. The adult males can be 2 m (6. 5 ft) high, over 3 m (10 ft) long and can weigh between 600-1200 kilograms (1300-2600 pounds) females weigh only 300 kg (650 pounds) on average. Domestication Evidence Archaeologists and biologists are agreed that there is strong evidence for two distinct domestication events from aurochs: B. taurus in the near east about 10, 500 years ago, and B. indicus in the Indus valley of the Indian subcontinent ?about 7, 000 years ago. There may have been a third auroch domesticate in Africa (tentatively called? B. africanus) about 8, 500 years ago. Yaks were domesticated in central Asia about 7, 000-10, 000 years ago. Recent mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) studies also indicate that B. taurus was introduced into Europe and Africa where they interbred with local wild animals (aurochs. Whether these occurrences should be considered as separate domestication events is somewhat under debate. Recent genomic studies (Decker et al. 2014) of 134 modern breeds supports the presence of the three domestication events, but also found evidence for later migration waves of animals to and from the three main loci of domestication. Modern cattle are significantly different today from the earliest domesticated versions. Three Auroch Domesticates Bos taurus The taurine (humpless cattle, B. taurus) was most likely domesticated somewhere in the Fertile Crescent about 10, 500 years ago. The earliest substantive evidence for cattle domestication anywhere in the world is the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in the Taurus Mountains. One strong strand of evidence of the locus of domestication for any animal or plant is genetic diversity: places that developed a plant or animal generally have high diversity in those species; places where the domesticates were brought in, have lesser diversity. The highest diversity of genetics in cattle is in the Taurus Mountains. A gradual decline in overall body size of aurochs, a characteristic of domestication, is seen at several sites in southeastern Turkey, beginning as early as the late 9th at Cayonu Tepesi. Small-bodied cattle do not appear in archaeological assemblages in the eastern Fertile Crescent until relatively late (6th millennium BC) and then abruptly. Based on that, Arbuckle et al. (2016) surmise that domestic cattle arose in the upper reaches of the Euphrates river. Taurine cattle were traded across the planet, first into Neolithic Europe about 6400 BC; and they appear in archaeological sites as far away as northeastern Asia (China, Mongolia, Korea) by about 5000 years ago. Bos indicus (or B. taurus indicus) Recent mtDNA evidence for domesticated zebu (humped cattle, B. indicus) suggests that two major lineages of B. indicus are currently present in modern animals. One (called I1) predominates in southeast Asia and southern China and is likely to have been domesticated in the Indus Valley region of what is today Pakistan. Evidence of the transition of wild to domestic B. indicus is in evidence in Harappan sites such as Mehrgahr about 7, 000 years ago. The second strain, I2, may have been captured in East Asia, but apparently was also domesticated in the Indian subcontinent, based on the presence of a broad range of diverse genetic elements. The evidence for this strain is not entirely conclusive as of yet. Possible: Bos africanus or Bos taurus Scholars are divided about the likelihood of a third domestication event having occurred in Africa. The earliest domesticated cattle in Africa have been found at Capeletti, Algeria, about 6500 BP, but Bos remains are found at African sites in what is now Egypt, such as Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba, as long ago as 9, 000 years, and they may be domesticated. Early cattle remains have also been found at Wadi el-Arab (8500-6000 BC) and El Barga (6000-5500 BC. One significant difference for taurine cattle in Africa is a genetic tolerance to trypanosomosis, the disease spread by the tsetse fly which causes anemia and parasitemia in cattle, but the exact genetic marker for that trait has not been identified to date. A recent study (Stock and Gifford-Gonzalez 2013) found that although genetic evidence for African domesticated cattle is not as comprehensive or detailed as that for?other forms of cattle, what there is available suggests that domestic cattle in Africa are the result of wild aurochs having been introduced into local domestic B. taurus populations. A genomic study published in 2014 (Decker et al. indicates that while considerable introgression and breeding practices have altered the population structure of modern day cattle, there is still consistent evidence for three major groups of domestic cattle. Lactase Persistence One recent strain of evidence for the domestication of cattle comes from the study of lactase persistence, the ability to digest milk sugar lactose in adults (the opposite of lactose intolerance. Most mammals, including humans, can tolerate milk as infants, but after weaning, they lose that ability. Only about 35% of people in the world are able to digest milk sugars as adults without discomfort, a trait called lactase persistence. This is a genetic trait, and it is theorized that it would have selected for in human populations that had ready access to fresh milk. Early Neolithic populations who domesticated sheep, goats and cattle would not have yet developed this trait, and probably processed the milk into cheese, yogurt, and butter prior to consuming it. Lactase persistence has been connected most directly with the spread of dairying practices associated with cattle, sheep, and goats into Europe by Linearbandkeramik populations beginning about 5000 BC. And a Yak ( Bos grunniens grunniens or Poephagus grunniens) The domestication of yaks may well have made human colonization of the high Tibetan Plateau (also known as Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau) possible. Yaks are extremely well adapted to the arid steppes at high elevations, where low oxygen, high solar radiation, and extreme cold are common. In addition to the milk, meat, blood, fat, and pack energy benefits, perhaps the most important yak byproduct in the cool, arid climate is dung. The availability of yak dung as a fuel was a critical factor in allowing for the colonization of the high region, where other fuel sources are lacking. Yaks possess large lungs and hearts, expansive sinuses, long hair, thick soft fur (very useful for cold-weather clothing) and few sweat glands. Their blood contains a high hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count, all of which make cold adaptations possible. Domestic Yaks The main difference between wild and domestic yaks is their size. Domestic yaks are smaller than their wild relatives: adults are generally no more than 1. 5 m (5 ft) tall, with males weighing between 300-500 kg (600-1100 lbs) and females between 200-300 kg (440-600 lbs. They have white or piebald coats and lack gray-white muzzle hairs. They can and do interbreed with wild yaks, and all yaks have the high altitude physiology they are prized for. There are three types of domestic yaks in China, based on morphology, physiology, and geographical distribution: a valley type distributed in the valleys of north and east Tibet, and some parts of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces; a plateau grassland type mainly found in the high, cold pastures and steppes that maintain an annual average temperature below 2 degrees centigrade; and white yaks found in almost every region in China. Domesticating the Yak Historical reports dated to the Chinese Han Dynasty state that yaks were domesticated by the Qiang people during the Longshan culture period in China, about 5, 000 years ago. The Qiang were ethnic groups who inhabited the Tibetan Plateau borderlands including Qinghai Lake. Han Dynasty records also say the Qiang people had a "Yak State" during the Han dynasty, 221 BC-220 AD, based on a highly successful trade network. Trade routes involving domestic yak were recorded beginning in the Qin dynasty records (221-207 BC) predating and no doubt part of precursors to the Silk Road - and cross-breeding experiments with Chinese yellow cattle to create the hybrid dzo are described there as well. Genetic ( mtDNA) studies support the Han Dynasty records that yaks were domesticated on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, although the genetic data does not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn about the number of domestication events. The variety and distribution of mtDNA are not clear, and it is possible that multiple domestication events from the same gene pool, or interbreeding between wild and domesticated animals occurred. However, the mtDNA and archaeological results also blur the dating of the domestication. The earliest evidence for domestic
  2. First Cow Free Online at Dailymotion gostream









  • アイテム
  • アイテム
  • アイテム