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Abstract: An escaped slave travels north and has chance encounters with Frederick Douglass and John Brown. Based on the life story of Shields Green 2020 casts: Kat Graham To save this word, you'll need to log in. em??per??or | \ ?em-p?r-?r, -pr?r \ 1: the sovereign or supreme male monarch of an empire Other Words from emperor emperorship \ ?em-?p?r-??r-??ship, -?pr?r-? \ noun Did You Know? The words emperor, caesar, czar, and Kaiser all go back to one source: the title of the first Roman emperor, Imperator Caesar Augustus. Augustus was the adopted son of the Roman general and ruler Julius Caesar and he took the name Caesar as part of his official name. Later Roman emperors did the same, and thus caesar came to mean “an emperor of Rome. ” The word caesar was borrowed into German and other Germanic languages as Kaiser, which is how we get the word kaiser for “a ruler in Germany. ” Through the Russian word tsar, which also came from kaiser, we got our word czar, meaning “a ruler in Russia. ” The word emperor can be traced through French to Latin imperator. Imperator was a title given to great Roman generals and meant “commander, ” from the verb imperare “to command. ” Examples of emperor in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web But Ghosn is used to living like an emperor who relished nothing more circling the globe and posing with heads of state. ? Fortune, "Carlos Ghosn Is Now a Fugitive In Exile. Here Are His Legal Options, According to Experts, " 10 Jan. 2020 The Second Empire lasted until 1870, when the emperor, conscious of his declining popularity, declared war on Prussia ? and lost. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of the world's largest freshwater fish just went extinct. Grace Hauck, USA TODAY, "Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of world's largest fish just went extinct, " 10 Jan. 2020 After years of battle, the French took over Mexico City and installed an emperor ? Maximilian I of the Austrian House of Hapsburg ? in 1864 for what would be a very short empire indeed. Jay R. Brooks, The Mercury News, "Beer trend alert: The resurgence of Mexican lager, " 6 Sep. 2019 As art historian Michael Rainer tells Viennese daily, a 17th-century biography of Dürer details a wall painting ordered by the emperor, but no other records of the commission survive. Brigit Katz, Smithsonian Magazine, "Artwork Discovered in Vienna Cathedral’s Gift Shop May Be the Work of German Renaissance Master Albrecht Dürer, " 13 Jan. 2020 Bonaparte went from being France’s first elected president to its last emperor. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 But Shinto’s ties to the imperial family, and some religious rituals performed by the emperor, have generated controversy. Washington Post, "Shinto festival carries on centuries-old tradition in Japan, " 5 Dec. 2019 The 1980s saw the inscrutable foreigner with his secret allegiance to the emperor evolve into the company man with an obsessive allegiance to work. Rumaan Alam, The New Republic, "The Factory Is a Chilling Account of the Contemporary Workplace, " 2 Dec. 2019 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'emperor. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of emperor 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 History and Etymology for emperor Middle English emperour, borrowed from Anglo-French empereor, amperour, going back to Latin imperātōr-, imperātor "person giving orders, commanding officer, title of honor bestowed on a victorious general by his troops, title conferred by the Roman senate on Julius Caesar and Augustus and adopted by later successors, " from imperāre "to demand the production of, levy, give orders, exercise authority, hold political power" (from im- in- entry 2 + parāre "to supply, provide, make ready") + -tōr-, -tor, agent suffix ? more at pare Note: See note at pare. Learn More about emperor Cite this Entry “Emperor. ” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster,. Accessed 13 Feb. 2020. More Definitions for emperor em??per??or | \ ?em-p?r-?r \ Kids Definition of emperor: a man who rules an empire Comments on emperor What made you want to look up emperor? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).
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Francis Joseph I emperor of Austria and king of Hungary; was defeated by Napoleon III at the battle of Magenta (1830-1916) Genghis Khan Mongolian emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227) Ras Tafari Makonnen emperor of Ethiopia; worshipped by Rastafarians (1892-1975) Michinomiya Hirohito emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989) Justinian the Great Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain (483-565) Kublai Kaan Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China; he establish the Yuan dynasty and built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing where he received Marco Polo (1216-1294) Meiji Tenno emperor of Japan who encouraged the modernization of Japan (1852-1912) Montezuma II the last Aztec emperor in Mexico who was overthrown and killed by Hernando Cortes (1466-1520) Napoleon Bonaparte French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821) Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte nephew of Napoleon I and emperor of the French from 1852 to 1871 (1808-1873) Ch'in Shih Huang Ti the first Qin emperor who unified China, built much of the Great Wall, standardized weights and measures, and created a common currency and legal system (died 210 BC) Shah Jahan Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666) Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Emperor of Rome; nephew and son-in-law and adoptive son of Antonius Pius; Stoic philosopher; the decline of the Roman Empire began under Marcus Aurelius (121-180) Antonius Pius Emperor of Rome; adoptive son of Hadrian (86-161) Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC; defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC at Actium (63 BC - AD 14) Gaius Caesar Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity; noted for his cruelty and tyranny; was assassinated (12-41) Catherine I empress of Russia who succeeded her husband Peter the Great (1684-1727) Catherine the Great empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796) Charles the Great king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814) Charles the Bald as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (823-877) Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered; consolidated the Roman Empire and conquered southern Britain; was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina after her son Nero was named as Claudius' heir (10 BC to AD 54) Flavius Valerius Constantinus Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople (280-337) Decius Emperor of Rome who was proclaimed emperor against his will; his reign was notable for his severe persecution of Christians (201-251) Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian Roman Emperor who when faced with military problems decided in 286 to divide the Roman Empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west; he initiated the last persecution of the Christians in 303 (245-313) Titus Flavius Domitianus Emperor of Rome; son of Vespasian who succeeded his brother Titus; instigated a reign of terror and was assassinated as a tyrant (51-96) Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia (1503-1564) Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia and Hungary who waged war against Protestant forces (1578-1637) Ferdinand III Holy Roman Emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia who signed the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War (1608-1657) Emperor Francis II the last Holy Roman Emperor (1768-1835) Frederick Barbarossa Holy Roman Emperor from 1152 to 1190; conceded supremacy to the pope; drowned leading the Third Crusade (1123-1190) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II the Holy Roman Emperor who led the Sixth Crusade and crowned himself king of Jerusalem (1194-1250) Publius Aelius Hadrianus Roman Emperor who was the adoptive son of Trajan; travelled throughout his empire to strengthen its frontiers and encourage learning and architecture; on a visit to Britain in 122 he ordered the construction of Hadrian's Wall (76-138) Henry IV King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor (1050-1106) Henry VII King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor (1275-1313) Flavius Claudius Julianus Roman Emperor and nephew of Constantine; he restored paganism as the official religion of the Roman Empire and destroyed Christian temples but his decision was reversed after his death (331? -363) Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Roman Emperor from 286 until he abdicated in 305; when Diocletian divided the Roman Empire in 286 Maximian became emperor in the west (died in 311) Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Roman Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68) Marcus Cocceius Nerva Emperor of Rome who introduced a degree of freedom after the repressive reign of Domitian; adopted Trajan as his successor (30-98) Otto the Great King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor (912-973) Theodosius the Great the last emperor of a united Roman Empire, he took control of the eastern empire and ended the war with the Visigoths; he became a Christian and in 391 banned all forms of pagan worship (346-395) Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Augustus son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career (42 BC to AD 37) Titus Vespasianus Augustus Emperor of Rome; son of Vespasian (39-81) Marcus Ulpius Traianus Roman Emperor and adoptive son of Nerva; extended the Roman Empire to the east and conducted an extensive program of building (53-117) Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty who consolidated Roman rule in Germany and Britain and reformed the army and brought prosperity to the empire; began the construction of the Colosseum (9-79) Queen Victoria queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901; the last Hanoverian ruler of England (1819-1901) Kaiser Wilhelm grandson of Queen Victoria and Kaiser of Germany from 1888 to 1918; he was vilified as causing World War I (1859-1941) Types: show 6 types... hide 6 types... empress a woman emperor or the wife of an emperor Holy Roman Emperor sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire Kaiser the title of the Holy Roman Emperors or the emperors of Austria or of Germany until 1918 mikado, tenno the emperor of Japan; when regarded as a religious leader the emperor is called tenno Emperor of Rome, Roman Emperor sovereign of the Roman Empire Romanoff, Romanov a member of the imperial family that ruled Russia Type of: crowned head, monarch, sovereign a nation's ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right.
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English [ edit] Alternative forms [ edit] emperour ( obsolete) Etymology [ edit] From Middle English emperour, borrowed from Anglo-Norman emperour and Old French empereor (Modern French empereur), from Latin imperātor ( “ emperor; commander ”), from imperāre ( “ to command ”). Doublet of imperator. Pronunciation [ edit] ( Received Pronunciation) IPA ( key): /??mp???/, /??mp??/ ( General American) IPA ( key): /??mp???/, /??mp??/ ( General New Zealand) IPA ( key): /?emp???/, /?emp??/ Noun [ edit] emperor ( plural emperors) The male monarch or ruler of an empire. (Can we date this quote by Sri Ramana Maharishi and provide title, author's full name, and other details? ) Even an emperor is no match for a man with no wants. Any monarch ruling an empire, irrespective of gender, with "empress" contrasting to mean when consort to emperor 1994 Het Spinhuis, Transactions: Essays in Honor of Jeremy F. Boissevain In 690 Wu usurped the throne and became Emperor herself, which proved a unique event in the history of China. 2002 The Heritage of World Civilizations: To 1700 page 226 After his death in 683 she ruled for seven years as regent and then, deposing her son, became emperor herself, the only woman in Chinese history to hold the title. 2008 Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation page 211 Empress, imperial regent, and even emperor herself (r. 797?802), Irene was an important and powerful figure at the Byzantine court in the late eighth and early ninth century. 2013 Voyages in World History page 213 Originally the wife of the emperor, she engineered the imperial succession so that she could serve first as regent to a boy emperor and then as emperor herself. 2016, Commander Pakydus, "Sindbad & the 7 Galaxies" Where is Sindbad? I have a summons for him direct from the galactic emperor herself. He is to be brought here immediately to give an explanation for his recent actions. ( political theory) Specifically, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; the world-monarch. The Investiture Controversy was a conflict between the Emperor and the Pope. The fourth trump or major arcana card of the tarot deck. A large, relatively valuable marble in children's games. 2001, Paul Webley, The economic psychology of everyday life, page 39: But marbles are not only used to play games: they are also traded. In this market, the value of the different kinds of marbles (oilies, emperors, etc. ) is determined by local supply and demand and not by the price of the marbles [ …] Any fish of the family Lethrinidae. ( entomology) Any various butterflies of the subfamily Charaxinae. Usage notes [ edit] An emperor is generally addressed as His Imperial Majesty. Hyponyms [ edit] barracks emperor Derived terms [ edit] [ edit] Translations [ edit] ruler of an empire Albanian: perandor ? (sq) ? m Arabic: ??????? ?? m ( qay?ar), ????????????? ?? m ( ?imbrā?ūr) Armenian: ????? ? (hy) ( kaysr) Old Armenian: ????? ( kaysr), ????? ( kesar) Aromanian: ampirat ? m Asturian: emperador ? m Azerbaijani: imperator Belarusian: імпера?тар ? m ( impjerátar), цар ? m ( car) ( tsar) Bengali: ?????? ( sômra?) Breton: impalaer ? (br) Bulgarian: импера?тор ? (bg) ? m ( imperátor), цар ? (bg) ? m ( car) ( tsar) Burmese: ?????? ? (my) () Catalan: emperador ? (ca) ? m Chinese: Cantonese: 皇帝 ( wong 4 dai 3) Dungan: хуонди ( huondi), хуоншон ( huonšon) Mandarin: 皇帝 ? (zh) ( huángdì), 帝王 ? (zh) ( dìwáng), 天皇 ? (zh) ( tiānhuáng) ( of Japan), 皇上 ? (zh) ( huángshang) Czech: císař ? (cs) ? m Danish: kejser ? (da) ? c Dutch: keizer ? (nl) ? m Esperanto: imperiestro Estonian: keiser ? (et), imperaator Extremaduran: emperaol ? m Finnish: keisari ? (fi) French: empereur ? (fr) ? m Friulian: imperadôr ? m Galician: emperador ? m Georgian: ?????????? ( im?era?ori) German: Kaiser ? (de) ? m, Imperator ? (de) ? m Greek: αυτοκράτορας ? (el) ? m ( aftokrátoras) Ancient: α?τοκράτωρ ? m ( autokrátōr), κα?σαρ ? m ( kaîsar), α?τάναξ ? m ( autánax) Hebrew: ???? \ ?????? ? ? (he) ? m ( kesár, keysár) Hindi: ?????? ? m ( samrā?) Hungarian: császár ? (hu) Icelandic: keisari ? (is) ? m Ido: cezaro ? (io), imperiestro ? (io) Indonesian: kaisar ? (id), maharaja ? (id) Interlingua: imperator Irish: impire ? m Italian: imperatore ? (it) ? m Japanese: 皇帝 ? (ja) ( こうてい, kōtei) ( emperor in general), 帝王 ? (ja) ( ていおう, teiō) ( general term for emperor or monarch), 天皇 ? (ja) ( てんのう, tennō) ( emperor of Japan) Kazakh: император ( ïmperator) Khmer: ?????? ? (km) ( ?a?thiri?c), ????????? ( ri?ci? thiri?c), ?????? ? (km) ( s?mraac) Korean: ?? ? (ko) ( hwangje), ?? ? (ko) ( cheonhwang) (of Japan) Kurdish: Kurmanji: emperator ? (ku), qeyser ? (ku) Kyrgyz: император ? (ky) ( imperator) Lao: ???????? ( chak ka phat), ???????? ( chak ka wat), ????? ( n? rin), ????? ( n? lin), ????? ( rā sēn) Latin: imperātor ? (la) ? m Latvian: imperators ? m, ķeizars ? m Lithuanian: imperatorius ? m, ciesorius ? m Low German: German Low German: Kaiser Luxembourgish: Keeser ? m Macedonian: импера?тор ? m ( imperátor), цар ? m ( car) ( tsar) Malay: kaisar, maharaja, khakan Malayalam: ?????????? ( sāmrā??ŭ) Mandinka: mansa Manx: ard-ree ? m Maori: emepara, epara Marathi: ?????? ? m ( samrā?) Middle English: emperour Mongolian: эзэн хаан ( ezen haan) Norman: empéreu ? m ( Jersey) Norwegian: Bokmål: keiser ? (no) ? m Nynorsk: keisar ? m Occitan: emperador ? (oc) ? m Old Occitan: emperador Old English: cāsere ? m Persian: ???????? ? ? (fa) ( emperâtor) Polish: imperator ? (pl) ? m, cesarz ? (pl) ? m Portuguese: imperador ? (pt) ? m Punjabi: ????? ? (pa) ( samrā?) Quechua: qhapaq Romanian: împărat ? (ro) ? m Romansch: imperatur ? m, imperataur ? m, imperatour ? m, caiser ? m Russian: импера?тор ? (ru) ? m ( imperátor), царь ? (ru) ? m ( car?) ( tsar) Sanskrit: ?????? ? (sa) ? m ( adhirāja), ??????? ? (sa) ? m ( samrāj) Scottish Gaelic: ìmpire ? m Serbo-Croatian: Cyrillic: ца?р ? m, имп?ра?тор ? m, це?са?р ? m Latin: c?r ? (sh) ? m, impèrātor ? (sh) ? m, c?sār ? (sh) ? m Sicilian: mpiraturi Slovak: cisár ? (sk) ? m, cár ? (sk) ? m ( of Russia, Bulgaria) Slovene: cêsar ? (sl) ? m, imperátor ? m Sorbian: Lower Sorbian: kejžor ? m Upper Sorbian: kejžor ? m Spanish: emperador ? (es) ? m Swahili: kaisari Swedish: kejsare ? (sv) ? c Tagalog: baginda, emperador ? (tl) Tajik: император ( imperator) Telugu: ????????? ? (te) ( cakravarti) Thai: ????????? ( jàk-grà-pát), ??????? ( h??ng-dtêe) ( emperor of China) Turkish: imparator ? (tr), ilhan ? (tr) Turkmen: imperator Ukrainian: імпера?тор ? m ( imperátor), цар ? (uk) ? m ( car) ( tsar) Urdu: ????? ?? m ( samrā?) Uzbek: imperator ? (uz) Venetian: inperadore ? m, inperador ? m Vietnamese: hoàng đ? ? (vi), thiên hoàng ( of Japan) Vilamovian: kazer ? m Walloon: impreur ? (wa) ? m Welsh: ymerawdwr ? m Yiddish: ?????? ?? m ( keyser), ????????????? ?? m ( imperator) fourth trump or major arcana card Anagrams [ edit] per orem.
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Part of a series on European imperial, royal, noble, gentry and chivalric ranks in Western culture Emperor / Empress / King-Emperor / Queen-Empress / Kaiser / Tsar High king / High queen / Great king / Great queen King / Queen Archduke / Archduchess / Tsesarevich Grand prince / Grand princess Grand duke / Grand duchess Prince-elector / Prince / Princess / Crown prince / Crown princess / Foreign prince / Prince du sang / Infante / Infanta / Dauphin / Dauphine / Królewicz / Królewna / Jarl Duke / Duchess / Herzog / Knyaz / Princely count Sovereign prince / Sovereign princess / Fürst / Fürstin / Boyar Marquess?/ Marquis / Marchioness ?/ Margrave ?/ Landgrave / Marcher Lord / Count palatine Count / Countess ?/ Earl / Graf / Châtelain / Castellan / Burgrave Viscount / Viscountess ?/ Vidame Baron / Baroness / Freiherr / Advocatus / Lord of Parliament / Thane / Lenderman Baronet / Baronetess / Scottish Feudal Baron / Scottish Feudal Baroness / Ritter / Imperial Knight Eques / Knight / Chevalier / Ridder / Lady / Dame / Edelfrei / Seigneur / Lord Gentleman / Gentry / Esquire / Laird / Edler / Jonkheer / Junker / Younger / Maid Ministerialis v t e An emperor (from Latin: imperator, via Old French: empereor) [1] is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife ( empress consort), mother ( empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right ( empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". [2] Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and typically rules over more than one nation. Therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, [3] or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be completely free of such restraints. However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts?the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire even during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used exclusively by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i. e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states (outside the Habsburg Monarchy, i. Austria, Bohemia and various territories outside the empire) had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year. The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia also used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their status was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not officially used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar even after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has even extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era. However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but currently precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns?whether they be kings, queens, emperors, empresses, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents?is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Roman tradition [ edit] In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country. The first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because that was the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was already usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors also varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known (for empires not too strictly under salic law). Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as often occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors; the Roman imperial tradition made no exception to other monarchical traditions in this respect. Probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Rome's third century rule. Roman Empire and Byzantine emperors [ edit] Classical Antiquity [ edit] When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch. Ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and it was critical to the political order to maintain the forms and pretenses of republican rule. Julius Caesar had been Dictator, an acknowledged and traditional office in Republican Rome. Caesar was not the first to hold it, but following his assassination the term was abhorred in Rome [ citation needed]. Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus, considered the first Roman emperor, established his hegemony by collecting on himself offices, titles, and honours of Republican Rome that had traditionally been distributed to different people, concentrating what had been distributed power in one man. One of these offices was princeps senatus, ("first man of the Senate") and became changed into Augustus' chief honorific, princeps civitatis ("first citizen") from which the modern English word and title prince is descended. The first period of the Roman Empire, from 27 BC ? AD 284, is called the principate for this reason. However, it was the informal descriptive of Imperator ("commander") that became the title increasingly favored by his successors. Previously bestowed on high officials and military commanders who had imperium, Augustus reserved it exclusively to himself as the ultimate holder of all imperium. ( Imperium is Latin for the authority to command, one of a various types of authority delineated in Roman political thought. ) Beginning with Augustus, Imperator appeared in the title of all Roman m
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