エスペラント語の修正版として開発された人工言語、国際補助語です。

**** Lesson 22 - Duadek-e-duesma Leciono **************************************

Comparative:-------------------------------------------------------------------
She is beautiful. = Elu esas bela.
She is as beautiful as her sister. = Elu esas tam bela kam sua fratino.
She is more beautiful than her sister. = Elu esas plu bela kam sua fratino.
She is less beautiful than her sister. = Elu esas min bela kam sua fratino.

She is no less beautiful than her sister. She is as beautiful as her sister.
= Elu ne esas min bela kam sua fratino.

She is no more beautiful than her sister. Both of them are ugly.
= Elu ne esas plu bela kam sua fratino. L'amba esas leda.

No one is more beautiful than her sister. No one is as beautiful as her sister.
Her sister is the most beautiful woman of all.
= Nulu esas plu bela kam elua fratino. Nulu esas tam bela kam elua fratino.
= Elua fratino esas la maxim bela muliero del omni.

---------------------------------
She has no less than (=as much as) 50 dollars.
= Elu havas ne'min kam kinadek dolari.
= Elu havas tam multa kam kinadek dolari.

She has not less than (=at least) 50 dollars.
= Elu ne havas min kam kinadek dolari.
= Elu havas ad'minime kinadek dolari.

She has no more than (=only, just, exactly) 50 dollars.
= Elu havas ne'plu kam kinadek dolari.
= Elu havas nur/precize kindadek dolari.

She has not more than (=at most) 50 dollars.
= Elu ne havas plu kam kinadek dolari.
= Elu havas ad'maxime kinadek dolari.


How to translate THAT:---------------------------------------------------------
(1) If it joins two sentences, use 'ke'.
       I see that you are here. - Me vidas ke vu esas hike.
(2) If it means 'who', 'whom', 'which', use 'qua' as subject, 'quan' as object
    (if before the verb).
       The cat that was here. - La kato qua esis hike.
       The dog that you saw. - La hundo quan vu vidis.
(3) If it means 'that' person, use 'ita', 'ta'.
       That man is too old. - Ita/ta viro esas tro olda.
(4) If it menas 'that' thing, use 'ito','to'.
       That is no use. - Ito/to ne utilesas.
(5) If it menas 'that' kind of, use 'tala'.
       That person! Well, I never! - Tala persono! ne-kredebla!
(6) If it menas 'in order that', use 'por ke' (with imperative).
       I tell you now that you may be prepared.
       Me dicas olu a vu nun por ke vu esez preparita/pronta.

THAT should never be omitted:--------------------------------------------------
'That' is very often omitted in English, but should never be omitted in Ido:

(1) The book (that) I gave you - La libro quan me donis a vu.
(2) I think (that) he will come. - Me opinionas ke ilu venos.

It is generally omitted in English after verbs like 'to think', 'to hope',
   'to wish', 'to believe'. It is impossible to pay too much attention to this
   rule, as the correct use of the word 'ke' is the key to a good international
   style for English-speaking students.

Other words omitted:-----------------------------------------------------------
All other words omitted in English have to be inserted in Ido:

   It was he mentioned the fact (= he who mentioned).
   Esas ilu' ta qua mencionis la fakto.

   He knew the man we were speaking of (=of whom we...).
   Ilu konocis la viro pri qua ni parolis.

   Do what he will (=let him do...), he cannot...
   Ilu facez quon ilu volas, ilu ne povas...

   If a man was great while living (=while he was living),
   Se homo esis famoza dum ke ilu vivis,

   He gave the boy a penny (=a penny to the boy).
   Ilu donis ok centimi a la puero.

   Show me it (=show it to me). - Montrez olu a me.

Imperative Clause:-------------------------------------------------------------
The subject of an imperative clause can be omitted only when it is "vu" or "tu".

Tu venez ad'hike tam balde kam (lo esez) posibla. ->
Venez ad'hike tam balde kam posibla.

But, the subjedct "printempo" can not be omitted in the next phrase.
Printempo venez ad'en Europa tam balde kam posibla. (Dicita en vintro.)

Prego (prejo*) venez ad'en l'inferno por ke la pekinto povez repentar.
...... so that a prayer might give him the chance to repent.

pregar: to beg, entreat, beseech, and also to pray to God
prejar* : to say a prayer (religious meaning only)


Infinitive Clause:-------------------------------------------------------------
Another important case in which 'that' as a conjunction (= ke) should be used
   is the infinitive clause: Even though it is possible to translate,
      I want you to come. - Me volas vu venar.
                          - (Me volas a vu' venar.)
      He ordered them to go away. - Ilu imperis li de-irar.
                                  - (Ilu imperis a li' de-irar.)
   but ..
   it is preferable to say as follows using the infinitive clasues.
      I want you to come. - Me volas ke vu venez.
      He ordered them to go away. - Ilu imperis ke li de-irez.

It will be noticed that such phrases occur most frequently with verbs of
   'command' and 'desire'.


XXXXX << The unofficial world of Ido >> XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



Why you need "di" after nouns:-------------------------------------------------

Se onu darfas adjuntar infinitivo a substantivo sen "di", onu povas dicar ...  
Lu mustas per sua esforco komprenar traktar l'afero. ->
 (1) Lu mustas, per sua esforco, komprenar traktar l'afero.
 (2) Lu mustas, per sua esforco komprenar, traktar l'afero.

Tamen se onu mustas pozar "di" inter infinitivo e substantivo, onu dicas ...   
Lu mustas per sua esforco di komprenar traktar l'afero. =
Lu mustas, per sua esforco di komprenar, traktar l'afero.

Lu mustas per sua esforco komprenar traktar l'afero. =
Lu mustas, per sua esforco, komprenar (quale) traktar l'afero.


Se onu darfas adjuntar infinitivo a substantivo sen "di", onu povas dicar ...  
Me imperis a roboto komprenar traktar la mashino. ->
 (1) Me imperis a roboto' komprenar traktar la mashino.
 (2) Me imperis a 'roboto komprenar' traktar la mashino.

Tamen se onu mustas pozar "di" inter infinitivo e substantivo, onu dicas ...   
Me imperis a roboto di komprenar traktar la mashino. =
Me imperis a 'roboto di komprenar' traktar la mashino.

Me imperis a roboto komprenar traktar la mashino. =
Me imperis a roboto' komprenar (quale) traktar la mashino.


How to get Dad and Mom from Father and Mother:---------------------------------
We can borrow the appropriate sufixes from Esperanto, namely, -chy- and -nyo-. 
And let's change -chy- for -ch-, more easily pronouceable form.                

Father : Patro -> Dad : Pacho
Mother : Matro -> Mom : Manyo

Just as in English we make Anthony into Tony, and Katharine into Kate or Kitty,
so in Ido we can get similar names by puttting -ch- for a male, or -ny- for a  
female, after one of the first few letters of the full name. Thus, from Michael
we form, according to occasion, Micho; and Katanyo, Kanyo etc. from Katharine.


Whose, of which:---------------------------------------------------------------
"Whose and of which" are translated "di qua/qui" or sometimes "qua'ns/qui'ns":

   The boy "whose" book I saw (=the boy of whom I saw the book).
   La puero di qua me vidis la libro.
   La puero qua'ns libron me vidis.

   The sword which Hector gave Ajax was that on "whose" point Ajax fell.
   La glavo quan Hektor donis ad Ajax, esis ta sur la pinto di qua Ajax falis.
   La glavo quan Hektor donis ad Ajax, esis ta sur qua'ns pinto Ajax falis.

   The books, the binding "of which" you like.
   La libri di qui vu prizis la binduro.
   La libri qui'ns binduron vu prizis.

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