エスペラント語の修正版として開発された人工言語、国際補助語です。

**** Lesson 10 - Dekesma Leciono **********************************************

Possessive Pronouns:-----------------------------------------------------------
These are the same as the personal pronouns, except that the adjectival ending
   -a is added. (See also note below).

   mea - my/mine : tua - thy/thine : vua - your/yours (belonging to one person)
   lua - his/her/hers/its
   When necessary use: ilua - his : elua - her/hers : olua - its
   sua - his own/her own/its own/their own

   nia - our/ours : via - your/yours (more than one person)
   lia - their/theirs
   When necessary use:
      ilia - their (belonging to men)
      elia - their (belonging to women)
      olia - their (belonging to things)

   Note that 'me' gives 'mea', 'tu' gives 'tua',
      but 'il', 'el', 'ol' give 'ilua', 'elua', 'olua'.
   This is because the full forms for he, she, it are 'ilu', 'elu', 'olu'.
      'Il', 'el', 'ol' are convenient short forms.

Me vizitis mea dentisto - I went to see my dentist. Ilu vizitis lua (sua)
matro -  He visited his (his own) mother. Elu perdis ilua parapluvo -  She
lost his umbrella. Li admiris sua chapeli -  They admired their (own) hats.
Ili admiris elia chapeli -  They (the men) admired their (the women's) hats.

   A possessive pronoun always implies the definite article;
      thus 'mea amiko' is 'my friend', 'the friend I spoke of',
      while 'a friend of mine' is translated 'amiko di me'.

Conditional Mood:--------------------------------------------------------------
The conditional mood is formed with the ending -us:

   Me venus, ma me ne havas biciklo. - I would come, but I haven't got a bike.
   Ilu manjus - He would eat,   Elu drinkus - She would drink.

As you can see it means 'would', but care must be taken not to confuse two
   different English tenses using the same construction:
   When I was young, I would swim in the river.
   Here 'would swim' is used instead of 'used to swim' or 'swam', and is
   therefore really the past tense: Kande me esis yuna, me natis en la rivero.

As the name suggests there is a condition in this tense,
   I would run if..., I would sing, but...
   It is in this type of construction that the -us ending must be used.

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
alonge - along,  altra - other,  balde - soon,  balnar - to bathe,
desegnar - to draw,  filiino - daughter,  finar - to finish,  imajo - picture,
komencar - to begin,  lavar - to wash,  nazo - noze,  paketo - package,
obliviar [ob-li-VYARR] - to forget,  perdar [perr-DARR] - to lose,
repozar - to rest,  ruptar - to break,  sendar - to send,  spegulo - mirror,
servar[serr-VARR] - to serve,  tro - too,  voyo - road/way

/Note/ povar - to be able,   povus - could (would be able).

Exempli:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I would begin the work. - Me komencus la laboro.
She would lose the money. - Elu perdus la pekunio.
He would break the mirror. - Ilu ruptus la spegulo.
Their aunt would forget it. - Lia onklino oblivius ol.
Its nose would be too small. - Olua nazo esus tro mikra.
They would finish the drinks. - Li finus la drinkaji.
I would come soon, if I could. - Me venus balde, se me povus.
You would draw another picture. - Vu desegnus altra imajo.
I would not serve another lady. - Me ne servus altra damo.
The mouse would eat the bananas. - La muso manjus la banani.
The man would win too many cards. - La viro ganus tro multa karti.
The mother would send her daughter. - La matro sendus sua filiino.
I would forget to go along the road. - Me oblivius irar alonge la voyo.
If I could, I would buy another house. - Se me povus, me komprus altra domo.
The clerk would begin to work if he could. -
   La klerko komencus laborar se ilu povus.
Mary would rest, but she does not have the time. -
   Mary repozus, ma elu ne havas la tempo.
Her daughter would go, but the road is too long. -
   Elua filiino irus, ma la voyo esas/es tro longa.
You would bathe in the river, but it is too cold. -
   Vu balnus en la rivero, ma esas/es tro kolda.
I would wash the dog, but I haven't got the time. -
   Me lavus la hundo, ma me ne havas la tempo.
They would send the package, but John has lost it. -
   Li sendus la paketo, ma John perdis ol.

Comparison of adjectives:------------------------------------------------------
  (1) big -- bigger -- biggest : granda -- plu granda -- maxim granda
  (2) beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful
      bela -- plu bela -- maxim bela

As you can see from the above examples, in English there are two different
   systems for comparing adjectives. Ido has only one method of comparison
   which is equivalent to the English in the second example above.
This means that instead of 'bigger' Ido says 'more big' (plu granda), instead
   of 'prettiest', 'most pretty' (maxim beleta) and so on.

Adjectives are thus compared by:
   plu . . . kam  -  more . . . than
   min . . . kam  -  less . . . than
   tam . . . kam  -  as . . . as
   ne tam . . . kam  -  not so . . . as
   maxim . . . de  -  most . . . of
   minim . . . de  -  least . . . of
   tre  -  very

El esas PLU granda KAM me. - She is taller than I (am).
Me esas TAM richa KAM ilu. - I am as rich as he (is).
Ol esas la MAXIM bela de omni. - It is the finest of all.
Il esas TRE brava. - He is very brave.
Me preferas ico KAM ito. -  I prefer this to that.

Translate 'as good as possible' and similar phrases thus: maxim bona posible.

Here are some more examples:
   Me esas/es leda. - I am ugly.
   Ilu esas/es tam leda kam me. - He is as ugly as me.
   Elu esas/es plu leda kam vu. - She is more ugly (uglier) than you.
   Elu esas/es la maxim leda. - She is the most ugly (ugliest).

Note that KAM means both AS and THAN:

   KAM is used in making comparisons, even where English does not use 'than'.

Since ADVERBS of manner are formed from adjectives by changing -a into -e
   ( bona - good : bone - well,   fina - final : fine - finally ),
   they are compared like adjectives: Ilu lektas plu bone - He reads better.

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
alta - high,  chipa - cheap,  danjeroza - dangerous,  fresha - fresh,
inteligenta - intelligent,  interesanta - interesting,  kontenta - contented,
kurta - short,  larja - wide,  leda - ugly,  mola - soft,  povra - poor,
plena (de) - full (of),  pura - pure,  quieta - quiet,  simpla - simple,
stupida - stupid,  vakua [VA-kwa] - empty

Exempli:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The trees are high. - La arbori esas/es alta.
That river is wider. - Ta rivero esas/es plu larja.
The apples are cheap. - La pomi esas/es chipa.
This work is simpler. - Ca laboro esas/es plu simpla.
The bananas are cheaper. - La banani esas/es plu chipa.
That water is the purest. - Ta aquo esas/es la maxim pura.
This box is full of bananas. - Ca buxo esas/es plena de banani.
This road is too dangerous. - Ca voyo esas/es tro danjeroza.
He is drawing the empty bottle. - Ilu desegnas la vakua botelo.
That child is as quiet as a mouse. - Ta infanto esas/es tam quieta kam muso.
The meat is fresher than the fish. - La karno esas/es plu fresha kam la fisho.
My house is higher than your house. - Mea domo esas/es plu alta kam vua domo.
His dog is the fiercest in the town. -
   Ilua hundo esas/es la maxim feroca en la urbo.
She is the ugliest girl in the shop. -
   Elu esas/es la maxim leda puerino en la butiko.
He is the poorest teacher in this town. -
   Ilu esas/es la maxim povra instruktisto en ca urbo.
Jane's nose is shorter than Mary's nose. -
   La nazo di Jane esas/es plu kurta kam la nazo di Mary.
They are the most contented men in the pub. -
   Li esas/es la maxim kontenta viri en la drinkerio.
This armchair is softer than that armchair. -
   Ca berjero esas/es plu mola kam ta berjero.
I read the most interesting book in the shop. -
   Me lektis la maxim interesanta libro en la butiko.
Our daughter is the most intelligent girl in that school. -
   Nia filiino esas/es la maxim inteligenta yuno en ta skolo.

Edifici - Building:------------------------------------------------------------
arto-galerio - art gallery,  balno-baseno - swimming pool,
biblioteko [bi-blyo-TE-ko] - library,  drinkerio [drin-KE-ryo] - pub,
fabrikerio [fa-bri-KE-ryo] - factory,  farmo-domo [FARR-mo-DO-mo] - farmhouse,
incendio-domo [in-CEN-dyo-DO-mo] - fire station,  kirko [KIRR-ko] - church,
policeyo - police station,  posto-kontoro - post office,  hospitalo - hospital,
restorerio [res-to-RE-ryo] - restaurant,  urbo-domo [URR-bo-DO-mo] - town hall,
banko - bank,  butiko - shop,  cinemo - cinema,  domo - house,  hotelo - hotel,
dometo - cottage,  faro - lighthouse,  moskeo - mosque,  palaco - palace,
muzeo [mu-ZE-o] - museum,  teatro [te-A-tro] - theatre,  gareyo - garage,
edifico [e-di-FI-co] - building,  kafeerio [ka-fe-E-ryo] - cafe,
kastelo [kas-TE-lo] - castle,  katedralo [ka-te-DRA-lo] - cathedral,
kazerno [ka-ZERR-no] - barracks,  kontoro - office,
laverio [la-VE-ryo] - laundry,  staciono [sta-ci-O-no] - station,
templo - temple,  kapelo - chapel,  skolo - school

Vortifado:---------------------------------------------------------------------

   -estr- (Head of, chief of): polico - police,  policestro - police chief
      skolo - school,  skolestro - headmaster,  urbo - town,  urbestro - mayor

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
al = a la - to the,  altra - other,  apologiar - to apologise,  kom - as/for,
chera - dear/expensive,  dejuno - lunch,  esperar - to hope,  maro - sea,
facar - to do/make,  forsan - perhaps,  fru-dejuneto - breakfast,
garsono [garr-SO-no] - waiter,  intencar - to intend,  ja - already,
jeristo - manager,  juar [ju-ARR] - to enjoy,  kelka - some,  kelke - rather,
komprenar - to understand,  kredar - to believe,  omnibuso - bus,
lasar falar - to let fall/to drop,  pano - bread,  parolar - to speak,
pasar - to pass,  per [perr] - by means of,  quala? - how?,  quik - at once,
sat - enough,  sonar - to ring,  to - that (noun),  telefonilo - telephone,
neglijar - to neglect/to treat carelessly,  adibe - 'to' there (that place)

Konversado:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------- En la hotelo (J=jeristo, M=Sioro Morgan) ----------------------------
J: Bon jorno, Sioro Morgan! Me esperas ke vu pasis bona nokto hike en
   la Rejala Hotelo.
M: Yes, sat bona. Ma la lito ne esas/es tre mola. Olu esas/es kelke harda.
J: Me apologias. Me ne komprenas pro quo. Forsan ulu neglijis sua laboro.
   Ni donos a vu altra chambro kun nova lito.
   Ka vu ja manjis fru-dejuneto? Me esperas ke vu juis ol.
M: Fakte no! La ovi esis kolda e la garsono lasis falar kelka kafeo sur mea
   pano! Do, me intencas manjar mea dejuno en restorerio.
J: Me parolos quik al garsono. Altra garsono servos vu.
M: Bone, forsan me manjos hike. Me ne savas. Me vizitas hodie la maro.
   Me prizas balnar. Me iras de hike per la treno.
J: Me kredas ke la treno esas/es chera. La omnibuso esas/es plu chipa. Ho! Pardonez a me!
   La telefonilo sonas. Til rivido, Sioro Morgan!

Questioni:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
01) Quale nomesas la hotelo? -> Olu nomesas la Rejala Hotelo.
02) Ka Sioro Morgan pasis bona nokto? -> Yes, sat bone.
03) Quala esis ilua lito? -> Olu esis kelke harda.
04) Quon Sro Morgan manjis kom fru-dejuneto? -> Ilu manjis ovi.
05) Kad ilu juis ilua fru-dejuneto? -> No, ilu ne juis ol.
06) Qua lasis falar la kafeo sur ilua pano? -> La garsono.
07) Adube Sro Morgan iras hodie? -> Ilu iras a la maro.
08) Quon ilu prizas facar? -> Ilu prizas balnar en la maro.
09) Quale ilu iras adibe? -> Ilu iras per la treno.
10) Ka la treno esas/es plu chipa kam la omnibuso? -> No, plu chera.

Vortaro:-----------------------------------------------------------------------
butro - butter,  febla - weak,  forta - strong,  grava - heavy,  homo - person,
lejera - light,  lenta - slow,  margarino - margarine,  piro - pear,
preferar A (kam B) - to prefer A (to B),  rapida - fast

Generala Questioni:MP3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
01) Kad elefanto esas/es plu granda kam muso? -> Yes, multople plu granda kam muso.
02) Ka muso esas/es plu lejera kam hundo? -> Yes, plu lejera kam hundo.
03) Ka hotelo esas/es plu mikra kam domo? -> No, genarale plu granda kam domo.
04) Ka vu esas/es la maxim grava homo en vua domo? -> Kompreneble, yes!
05) Ka treno esas/es plu lenta kam biciklo? -> No, treno esas/es plu rapida.
06) Ka homo esas/es plu forta kam gorilo? -> No, homo esas/es multe plu febla kam gorilo.
07) Ka butro esas/es plu chera kam margarino? -> Yes, margarino esas/es plu chipa.
08) Ka vu preferas pomo kam piro? -> Yes, pomo kam piro.
09) Ka la televiziono esas/es plu bona kam la cinemo? -> No, kompreninde ne.
10) Ka vu esas/es la maxim inteligenta homo en vua familio? -> No, regretinde ne.


XXXXX << The unofficial world of Ido >> XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX



=========================================================================
Prfo Partaka UNTEL: Al buen entendedor pokas palavras abastan. (Ladinajo)
=========================================================================
De: Partaka                                          
Ye: Jue, 5 de Jul, 2007 2:37 am                                          
Pri: Ka "same kam" e "same quale"?                                       
Che IdoCatalaOccitan: http://es.groups.yahoo.com/group/IdoCatalaOccitan/ 
                                                                        
> Estimata samlinguani:                                                  
> Yen: "plu...kam, min...kam, tam...kam, same...kam".          Omna to ya
> esas justa, ma... ka "same quale" es anke korekta che ula kazi?        
> Kad ulu povas dicar ka yes o no, ed explikar la pro quo?               
> Predanko por via intereso!                P A R T A K A * * * * * * * *
                                                                         
A piece of cake:                                                         
                                                                         
Sro Andrea BOCELLI esas bona "same quale" me esas bona en mea Kungfu.    
Sro Andrea BOCELLI esas bona "same kam" Sro Luciano PAVAROTTI.

Me lernas la Latina "same quale" Sro Jean MARTIGNON. =                   
Me lernas la Latina per la sama metodo Assimil quale Sro Jean MARTIGNON
(lernas la Latina per la sama lerno'libro).  
                                                                         
Capisce Lei, Profesoro?                                                  

=========================================================================
Prfo Partaka UNTEL: Wem nicht zu raten ist, dem ist auch nicht zu helfen.
=========================================================================
De: Partaka 
Ye: Vie, 6 de Jul, 2007 11:11 pm!!
Pri: Itere, Ka "same kam" e "same quale"?
Che IdoCatalaOccitan: http://es.groups.yahoo.com/group/IdoCatalaOccitan/

> BYT skribis:
>>>
Me lernas la Latina "same kam" Sro Jean MARTIGNON. =
Amba personi lernas la sama linguo, la Latina.

Me lernas la Latina "same quale" Sro Jean MARTIGNON. =
Me lernas la Latina per la sama metodo Assimil quale Sro Jean MARTIGNON.
<<<

> Tamen, me sentas ke che "same quale" esas ulo stranja...
> Quankam me lektabas kelka-foye expresuro qual "same quale" da adminime
> trio de Ido-maestri, me nule certesas ke ol esas tote korekta (tale
> skribita, kun la du vorti ne-mediata, e sen komo).
> Voluntez serchar inter-rete "same kam" e "same quale", e konstatez
> l'ofteso di olta, e la desofteso di olca... Quale explikar...?
> Semblas a me, ke "same" sempre postulas "kam" (komparo), dum ke por
> "same quale", suficas "quale". Voluntez helpar per via komenti!
> P A R T A K A * * * * * * * *

Quankam me ne esas Ido-maestro, me facile povas vidar l'importanta difero
inter "same kam" e "same quale". Ma pro quo Ne' che vi importanta Idisti?

Avan omno onu ne povas dicar quale vi per "same kam" ...
Sro Andrea BOCELLI esas bona "same kam" me esas bona en mea Kungfu.., pro
ke la qualeso di boneso inter Sro Andrea BOCELLI e me ma lontane diferas.
Onu darfas komparar un grado dil boneso ad l'altra. Onu povas dicar ke la
grado dil boneso similesas inter ni. Do "same quale" == "similesante ke".

Onu povas dicar quale vi per "same kam" ...
Sro Andrea BOCELLI esas bona "same kam" Sro Luciano PAVAROTTI...., pro ke
onu referas la boneso dil kantado. Onu facile povas komparar li. Kad Yes?
Sro Andrea BOCELLI esas bona same "en la grado di (= quale)" (ke) me esas
bona en mea Kungfu. Do same quale = same "en la kondiciono di (= quale)".

Me lernas la Latina "same kam" Sro Jean MARTIGNON. =
Amba personi lernas la sama linguo, la Latina.

Same quale = same "en la maniero di"
Kande me lernas la Latina per la sama metodo kun ta di Sro Jean MARTIGNON,
 me lernas la Latina same "en la maniero di (= quale)" Sro Jean MARTIGNON.
----> Me lernas la Latina "same quale" Sro Jean MARTIGNON.  Kad Yes o No?

Non capisce Lei?



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