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シカゴで進化論 Newsweek 1980

「Chicago Conferenceで進化論が否定された」という創造論者の主張がある。そのひとつが、Newsweek 1980年11月3日の記事のQuote Miningだった:

[ Quote #3.5 There are no fossils showing transitions between species ]

In the fossil record, missing links are the rule: the story of life is as disjointed as a silent newsreel, in which species succeed one another as abruptly as Balkan prime ministers. The more scientists have searched for the transitional forms between species, the more they have been frustrated.... Evidence from fossils now points overwhelmingly away from the classical Darwinism which most Americans learned in high school: that new species evolve out of existing ones by the gradual accumulation of small changes, each of which helps the organism survive and compete in the environment - Jerry Adler - Newsweek (1980, 96[18]:95).

化石記録には、ミッシングリンクがお定まりだ。生命の物語はサイレントニュース映画と同じくらいに支離滅裂で、種と種の交代はバルカンの首相交代くらいに突如の出来事だ。科学者は種の中間化石をさがすほどに、失望する。... 化石証拠は、大半の米国人が高校で習う「新種は既存種から小さな変化の蓄積によって進化し、その変化は環境の中で生き延び競争するのに役立つ」という古典的ダーウィニズムから大きく遠ざかったものを指し示している。

...The only "surprise" here is that creationists have so little shame.


Once again, this is an article about the (then relatively new) proposal by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge of Punctuated Equilibria. It was apparently so new to these magazine writers that they (perhaps abetted by some of Gould's and Eldredge's scientific opponents) confused it with Richard Goldschmidt's "hopeful monsters" ideas, even though they note:

これもまた、Stephen Jay GouldとNiles Eldredgeが(比較的最近に)提唱した断続平衡説についての記事である。これらの雑誌記者にとっては目新しく、おそらくはGouldやEldredgeの科学界における敵対者に唆されて、次のように書きつつも、Richard Goldschmidtの有望なモンスターの考えと混同している。

The paleontologists who have been in the forefront of the new theory don't necessarily believe in hopeful monsters. When they say that new species evolved rapidly, they are speaking in geologic terms. A single generation or 50,000 years is all the same to them. Either would be too short an interval for the intermediate organisms to appear in the fossil record.


In short, the article is nothing more than a report on the early arguments about Punctuated Equilibria. And the quote mine is just a snippet of the magazine writers' (not very clear) description of Gould and Eldredge's position, not a quote from any scientist.


In any case, the quote miners strangely fail to include the following:

いずれにせよQuote Minerは不思議なことに次の部分を引用しない:

While the scientists have been refining the theory of evolution in the past decade, some nonscientists have been spreading anew the gospel of creationism -- and the coincidence has confused many laymen . . . Having opposed Darwin for 120 years, fundamentalists tend to seize on any criticism of his theories as vindication . . . But the new theories are intended to explain how evolution came about -- not to supplant it as a principle. Says Harvard's Stephen Jay Gould, . . . "Evolution is a fact, like apples falling out of trees."

科学者たちが過去10年間に進化論をリファインしている間、一部の非科学者たちは新たに創造論の福音を広めていた。この偶然の一致が素人たちを混乱させた。120年間にわたってダーウィンに敵対してきた原理主義者たちは、自らの擁護として、ダーウィンの理論に対する批判にはどんなもので飛びつく。..しかし、新たな理論は進化がどう起きたかを説明しようというものであって、原理として進化を置き換えるものではない。HarvardのStephen Jay Gouldは「進化はリンゴが木から落ちるのと同様に事実だ」と言っている。
The irony of the miner's use of this article in the face of the above is obvious and demonstrates more about the miners' honesty than it does anything about evolution.

- J. (catshark) Pieret
わりとわかりやすいQuote Miningである。






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