# 忘却からの帰還〜Intelligent Design

#### 地球平板説の「パースペクティブによる日出と日没」

「光線は直進する」ので、スポットライト太陽を仮定すると、地平線/水平線から昇る太陽も、沈む太陽もありえない。にもかかわらず、日出と日没があるのは、パースペクティブによるイリュージョンだと、19世紀の地球平板論者ParallaxことSamuel Birley Rowbothamは自著「Zetetic Astronomy -- Earth Not a Globe」で主張している。

もちろん、地球が平板であり、かつ光線が直進するなら、地平線はない。障害物がなく、大気がクリアであれば、原理的には平板地球の外縁であるな極の氷壁まで見通せる。鳥であろうが、航空機であろうが、遠くに行けば、小さくなって見えにくくなるとしても、「地平線」の下に行くことはない。

Rowbothamは、そこを、ふわっとした説明で、「地平線の下に消えていくように見える」と主張する。
ALTHOUGH the sun is at all times above the earth's surface, it appears in the morning to ascend from the north-east to the noonday position, and thence to descend and disappear, or set, in the north-west. This phenomenon arises from the operation of a simple and everywhere visible law of perspective. A flock of birds, when passing over a flat or marshy country, always appears to descend is it recedes; and if the flock is extensive, the first bird appears lower or nearer to the horizon than the last, although they are at the same actual altitude above the earth immediately beneath them. When a balloon sails away from an observer, without increasing or decreasing its altitude, it appears to gradually approach the horizon. In a long row of lamps, the second--supposing the observer to stand at the beginning of the series---will appear lower than the first; the third lower than the .second; and so on to the end of the row; the farthest away always appearing the lowest, although each one has the same altitude; and if such a straight line of lamps could be continued far enough, the lights would at length descend, apparently, to the horizon, or to a level with the eye of the observer, as shown in the following diagram, fig. 63.

Lt A, B, represent the altitude throughout of a long row of lamps, standing on the horizontal ground E, D; and C, H, the line of sight of an observer at C. The ordinary principles of perspective will cause an apparent rising of the ground E, D, to the eye-line C, H, meeting it at H; and an apparent descent of each subsequent lamp, from A, to H, towards the same eye-line, also meeting at H. The point H, is the horizon, or the true "vanishing point," at which the last visible lamp, although it has really the altitude D, B, will disappear.

Bearing in mind the above phenomena it will easily be seen how the sun, although always above and parallel to the earth's surface, must appear to ascend from the morning horizon to the noonday or meridian position; and thence to descend to the evening horizon.

In the diagram, fig. 64, let the line E, D, represent the surface of the earth; H, H, the morning and evening horizon; and A, S, B, a portion of the true path of the sun. An observer at 0, looking to the east, will first see the sun in the morning, not at A, its true position, but in its apparent position, H, just emerging from the "vanishing point," or the morning horizon. At nine o'clock, the sun will have the apparent position, 1, gradually appearing to ascend the line H, 1, S; the point S, being the meridian or noonday position. From S, the sun will be seen to gradually descend the line S, 2, H, until he reaches the horizon, H, and entering the "vanishing point," disappears, to an observer in England, in the west, beyond the continent of North America, as in the morning he is seen to rise from the direction of Northern Asia.

Fig.64で、直線E0Dは地表を、HとHは朝と夕方の地平線、直線A-S-Bは太陽の真の軌道とする、O地点で東を向いている観測者は最初に朝の太陽を見る太陽はAという真の位置ではなく、「消失点」あるいは朝の地平線から出てきたばかりの見かけの位置Hにある。9時には太陽が見かけの位置1になり、直線をH-1-Sを徐々に上昇するように見える。点Sは子午線あるいは正午の位置である。点Sから太陽は直線S-2-Hを徐々に下降し、地平線Hに到達する、そうして「消失点」に入ると、英国の観測者には、朝にアジアの方向で見たように、北米の方向に消えていくように見える。

[ Parallax: "Zetetic Astronomy", pp.124-126
パースペクティブを持ち出すのであれば、太陽が遠くでは小さく見えるはずだが、実際にはそうではないことの説明が必要になる。

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