Television is not about education or providing news and information. Television is about storytelling and holding the largest audience for the longest amount of time. Programmers will do anything they can to accomplish this. Pseudoarchaeology programs are in many ways more fun to watch than programs on archaeology. (cited in Fagan 2003: 49)


[ Bettina Arnold (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee): "Pseudoarchaeology and nationalism in political context" (2006/11) ]

Thou shalt have no prerequisites.(前提知識を必要としてはならない)

Every television program must be a complete package in itself. No previous knowledge is to be required. There must not be even a hint that learning is hierarchical, that it is an edifice constructed on a foundation. The learner must be allowed to enter at any point without prejudice. This is why you shall never hear or see a television program begin with the caution that if the viewer has not seen the previous programs, this one will be meaningless. Television is a nongraded curriculum and excludes no viewer for any reason, at any time. In other words, in doing away with the idea of sequence and continuity in education, television undermines the idea that sequence and continuity have anything to do with thought itself.

すべからく、テレビ番組は、それ自体で完結したパッケージでなければならない。前提知識を必要としてはならない。「学習が階層的であり、基礎の上に構築された建造物である」ということを感じさせてはならない。学習者が、いつでも偏見なく参加できるようにしなければならない。これが、視聴者が前の番組を見ていない場合、この番組は無意味になるという警告から始まるテレビ番組を見ない理由である。 テレビは採点のないカリキュラムであり、いかなる理由であっても、いつでも視聴者を排除しない。言い換えれば、テレビは教育における順序と連続性の概念を排除することで、順序と連続性が思考自体に何らかの関係があるという考えを損なっている。

Thou shalt induce no perplexity. (混乱を招いてはならない)

In television teaching, perplexity is a superhighway to low ratings. A perplexed learner is a learner who will turn to another station. This means that there must be nothing that has to be remembered, studied, applied, or, worst of all, endured. It is assumed that any information, story, or idea can be made immediately accessible, since the contentment, not the growth, of the learner is paramount.


Thou shalt avoid exposition like the 10 plagues visited upon Egypt.(汝はエジプトを襲った十の災いのような暴露を避ける)

Of all the enemies of television teaching, including continuity and perplexity, none is more formidable than exposition. Arguments, hypotheses, discussions, reasons, refutations, or any of the traditional instruments of reasoned discourse turn television into radio or, worse, third-rate printed matter. Thus, television teaching always takes the form of storytelling, conducted through dynamic images and supported by music. This is as characteristic of “Star Trek” as it is of “Cosmos,” of “Diff’rent Strokes” as of “Sesame Street,” of commercials as of “Nova.” Nothing will be taught on television that cannot be both visualized and placed in a theatrical context.

継続性や複雑さなど、テレビ教育のあらゆる敵の中で、解説ほど手ごわいものはない。議論、仮説、議論、理由、反駁、論理的な議論の伝統的な手段などは、どれであれ、テレビをラジオや、さらにはに三流の印刷物に変えてしまう。したがって、テレビ教育は常にストーリーテリングの形式をとり、ダイナミックな画像を通じて行われ、音楽によってサポートされる。これは、「コスモス」と同様に「スタートレック」の特徴であり、「セサミストリート」と同様に「ディフレント ストロークス」の特徴であり、「ノヴァ」と同様のコマーシャルの特徴でもある。視覚化することも演劇のコンテキストの配置できなものは、テレビでは教えられない。

[ Neil Postman: "Learning in the Age of Television" (1985/12/04) on EducationWeek ]

In the last years of his life, Malcolm Muggeridge, a pragmatic and caustic TV personality and print journalist who embraced religion in later life, warned:


From the first moment I was in the studio, I felt that it was far from being a good thing. I felt that television [would] ultimately be inimical to what I most appreciate, which is the expression of truth, expressing your reactions to life in words. I think you’ll live to see the time when literature will be quite a rarity because, more and more, the presentation of images is preoccupying.


Muggeridge concluded: (マゲリッジはこう結論づけた)

I don’t think people are going to be preoccupied with ideas. I think they are going to live in a fantasy world where you don’t need any ideas. The one thing that television can’t do is express ideas…There is a danger in translating life into an image, and that is what television is doing. In doing it, it is falsifying life. Far from the camera’s being an accurate recorder of what is going on, it is the exact opposite. It cannot convey reality nor does it even want to.

人々がアイデアに夢中になるとは思わない。彼らはアイデアを必要としないファンタジーの世界で生きていくことになると思う。テレビができない唯一のことは、アイデアを表現することだ。人生をイメージに変換することには危険があり、それをテレビがやっている。そうすることで、人生を偽ることになる。カメラは何が起こっているかを正確に記録するどころか、その逆だ。 現実を伝えることはできないし、伝えたいとも思わない。

[ Larry Woiwode: "Television: The Cyclops That Eats Books", Imprimis, FEBRUARY 1992 | VOLUME 21, ISSUE 2 ]







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