Hitler and his henchmen victimized an entire continent and exterminated millions in his quest for a so-called Master Race.

But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race didn't originate with Hitler. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little-known, role in the American eugenics movement's campaign for ethnic cleansing.



[ Edwin Black: "Eugenics and the Nazis -- the California connection" (2003/11/09) on San Francisco Chronicle]

そして、福音主義キリスト教は、そのような流れに抵抗したかというと、Dennis L. Durst(2002)によれば、そうではなかった:
When I began my research on evangelicals and the American eugenics movement, I thought I would find a large literature of anti-eugenic arguments. I hoped that evangelicals in the period 1900-1940 could prove helpful in current debates in bioethics. For the most part I was disappointed. To be sure, within evangelical circles were occasional voices of critique for one or another of the eugenicists’ more extravagant claims about marriage or proposals for social betterment. Historian Edward J. Larson has found scattered opposition to eugenics by Protestants in state legislative records, predominantly in the fundamentalist South.1 But on the whole the evangelical mainstream in the decades following the turn of the century appeared apathetic, acquiescent, or at times downright supportive of the eugenics movement. In this article, I argue that the evangelicals often accepted eugenics as a part of a progressive, reformist vision that uncritically fused the Kingdom of God with modern civilization. From this analysis I suggest a few strategies we can discern by reflecting on past failures to adequately assess and critique the eugenics movement.

私が福音主義者と米国の優生運動についての研究を始めたとき、福音主義者による反優生学の文献が多く見つかると考えた。私は、1900〜1940年における福音主義が、現在の生物倫理学の論争においても、有用だと証明できると期待した。しかし、それらは、おおよそ失望に終わった。確かに、福音主義者のなかには、結婚や社会改良についての優生学者の大げさな主張の幾つかを批判する声もあった。歴史学者Edward J. Larsonは、州法議事録にプロテスタント、特に南部原理主義者による優生学批判が散見されることを見出した[1]。しかし、福音主義主流の全体としては、世紀の変わり目から数十年にわたり、優生運動に無関心あるいは黙認、時には支持していた。本論文で私は、福音主義者たちが、現代文明と神の王国を融和させた進歩的改革的ビジョンのひとつとして、優生学を無批判に受け入れたと論じる。この分析から、私は、過去の失敗を反映し、優生運動を適切に評価・批判するための幾つかの戦略を提示する。

[1] The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition: An Encyclopedia, s.v. "Eugenics."

[ Dennis L. Durst: "Evangelical Engagements With Eugenics, 1900-1940", Ethics & Medicine, 18-2, 2002, Pubmed,Full Text ]

United Methodist Churchの「優生学支持についての悔悟」決議

むしろ、メソジストや長老教会派などは優生運動の積極推進サイドで行動していた。この過去の優生運動への関与について、Intelligent Design Exposedによれば、The people of The United Methodist Church(UMC)が、決議を可決した。

An Apology for Support of Eugenics (81175-C2-R9999)

Last Vote Action: Vote on Main Motion
This motion was Adopted, with 836 votes for and 28 votes against.

Plenary Motions: 4/30/2008 9:32 AM
Vote on Main Motion ADOPTED 836-28 (836対28で採択)

The Petition is amended as follows:

Delete everything from "we direct..." to the end of the petition.

Change the title of Petition 81175 from "An Apology for Support of Eugenics" to: "Repentance for Support of Eugenics" on both page 421 and 424.

全文はちょっと長いので、Intelligent Design Exposedが引用した部分だけ訳しておく:
Petition 81175

Ironically, as the Eugenics movement came to the United States, the churches, especially the Methodists, the Presbyterians, and the Episcopalians, embraced it.
Methodist churches around the country promoted the American Eugenics Society “Fitter Family Contests” wherein the fittest families were invariably fair skinned and well off. Methodist bishops endorsed one of the first books circulated to the US churches promoting eugenics. Unlike the battles over evolution and creationism, both conservative and progressive church leaders endorsed eugenics. The liberal Rev. Harry F. Ward, professor of Christian ethics and a founder of the Methodist Federation for Social Service, writing in Eugenics, the magazine of the American Eugenic Society, said that Christianity and Eugenics were compatible because both pursued the “challenge of removing the causes that produce the weak. Conservative Rev. Clarence True Wilson, the General Secretary of the Methodist Episcopal Board of Temperance, Prohibition and Public Morals, and the man chosen to debate Clarence Darrow after William Jennings Bryan’s death, believed that only the white Aryan race was the descendent of the lost tribes of Israel. Methodists were active on the planning committees of the Race Betterment Conferences held in 1914, and 1915. In the 1910s, Methodist Churches hosted forums in their churches to discuss eugenics. In the 1920s, many Methodist preachers submitted their eugenics sermons to contests hosted by the American Eugenics Society. By 1927, when the American Eugenics Society formed its Committee on the Cooperation with Clergymen, Bishop Francis McConnell, President of the Methodist Federation for Social Service served on the committee. In 1936, he would chair the roundtable discussion on Religion and Eugenics at the American Eugenics Society Meeting. The laity of the church also took up the cause of eugenics. In 1929, the Methodist Review published the sermon “Eugenics: A Lay Sermon” by George Huntington Donaldson. In the sermon, Donaldson argues, “the strongest and the best are selected for the task of propagating the likeness of God and carrying on his work of improving the race.”

皮肉なことに優生運動が米国に来たとき、教会、特にメソジストや長老教会派や米国聖公会は、これを受け入れた。全米のメソジスト教会は、最も適応した家族が常に白人で裕福であるという米国優生協会の"Fitter Family Contest"を推進した。メソジスト教会の聖職者は、米国の教会に広まり優生学を推進した初期の本の1冊を推奨していた。進化論と創造論の戦いと違って、保守的教会と進歩的教会の指導者たちはともに優生学を支持した。キリスト教倫理学の教授で、Methodist Federation for Social Serviceの創立者でもある、リベラルのHarry F. Ward師は、米国優生協会の機関紙であるEugenicsに、「キリスト教と優生学は、いずれも弱者が生じる原因を除去しようという挑戦を続けているので、両立する」と書いた。William J Bryan[訳注: 民主党大統領候補になること3回。進化論裁判の創造論側]の死後に、Clarence Darrowとの論戦に対抗するために選ばれた、メソジスト監督教会の節制・禁酒・公共倫理委員会長だった保守のClarence True Wilson師は、白きアーリア人のみが、イスラエルの失われた種族の子孫だと信じていた。メソジストたちは1914年と1915年に開かれた人種改良国民会議の計画委員会で活発に動いた。1910年代には、メソジスト教会は優生学を論じるフォーラムを自らの教会で主催した。1920年代には、多くのメソジスト伝道者たちが、米国優生協会が主催するコンテストに、自らの優生学説教を以って参加した。1927年まで、米国優生協会が聖職者との連携委員会を作ったとき、ソーシャル・サービスのためのメソジスト同盟理事長であるFrancis McConnell師が連携委員会の一員であった。彼は1936年に米国優生協会大会において宗教と優生学についての円卓会議の議長をつとめた。教会の一般信者も優生学運動を始めた。1929年に、メソジストレビューはGeorge Huntington Donaldson説教「Eugenics: A Lay Sermon」を出版した。その説教で、Donaldsonは「最も強く優れたものが、神の似姿を広め、人種を改良する仕事を続けるために選ばれるのだ」と主張した。

Both the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South promoted eugenics. Most of the time, church advocates of eugenics supported positive eugenics -- essentially careful selection of mates. Nevertheless, sterilization became an acceptable kind of eugenics along with marriage laws limiting marriage between whites and non-whites. Some annual conferences supported such laws and a few opposed them.


Indiana passed the first forced sterilization law in 1907; eventually 33 states passed similar laws. Most used Harry Laughlin’s model law that provided for the sterilization of “feeble minded, insane, criminalistic, epileptic, diseased, blind, deaf, deformed, and dependent” including “orphans, ne’er do wells, tramps, homeless, and paupers.” Virginia passed in 1924 a sterilization law based on the Laughlin model and on the same day passed a law making marriage between a white person and a non-white person a felony.

インディアナ州が1907年に初めて、強制断種法を成立させた。最終的に33州が同様の法律を成立させた。その大半がHarry Laughlinのモデル州法を基にしていた。それは、知的障害者、精神障害者、犯罪者、癲癇、病気、盲目、聾唖、畸形、依存症そして、孤児、放浪者とホームレスと貧乏人に対して断種を可能とするものだった。1924年のバージニアの州法案はLaughlineのモデルの断種法を成立させた同じ日に、白人と非白人の婚姻を重罪とする州法を成立させた。

Thirty-three US States eventually passed laws authorizing sterilization of criminals, the mentally ill, the “feeble minded”, Sterilization of the allegedly mentally ill continued into the 1970s in several states, by which time about 60,000 Americans had been involuntarily sterilized. In 1933, Hitler’s Nazi government used Laughlin’s Model Law as the basis for their sterilization law that led to the sterilization of some 350,000 people.







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